Bilingual Education Timeline

Timeline created by mstringer
In History
  • Fourteenth Amendment U.S. Constitution

    Fourteenth Amendment U.S. Constitution
    Federal law that establishes basic rights that guarantees equal protection under the laws of the United States. The Civil War had ended three years earlier and this was a way to rebuild the war torn nation.
  • Meyers v Nebraska

    Meyers v Nebraska
    This case ruling makes it clear that the 14th Amendment provides protection for language minorities.The state court ruled that the act could not prevent schools from providing German language instruction outside of the hours of regular school study.
  • The Lemon Grove School Board v Alvarez

    The Lemon Grove School Board v Alvarez
    The United States first successful school desegregation case. The local school board was in violation of California's State laws when they built a Mexican school to "Americanize" the Mexican-American children.
  • Mendez V Westminster

    Mendez V Westminster
    This was a landmark decision in 1946 and became law in 1947. It was a federal ruling that was the first to state that school segregation was unconstitutional and violated the fourteenth amendment and upended the separate but equal argument.
  • 1954 Brown V Board of Education

    1954 Brown V Board of Education
    This was the desegregation of public schools and the first major education policy.
  • Title IV of the Civil Rights Act of 1964

    Title IV of the Civil Rights Act of 1964
    This act bans discrimination on the basis of race, color, or national origin in any federally assisted program which includes schools. This was a time when our nation was divided among its own people and this was a way to end the division.
  • Title VII of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act(ESEA) Bilingual Education Act of 1968

    Title VII of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act(ESEA) Bilingual Education Act of 1968
    Federal policy that provides bilingual education for financially deprived language minority students.This recognized the needs of children with limited English proficiency for the first time nationally. This was during the civil rights movement when the atmosphere was about social justice for minorities. It provides funds for programs.
  • United State v Texas

    United State v Texas
    Judge Justice ordered schools in Texas to desegregate and provide bilingual instruction. This prohibited discrimination in extracurricular activities and personnel. This also required yearly reviews of districts with high or low minority populations.
  • Bilingual Education Act Reauthorization of 1974

    Bilingual Education Act Reauthorization of 1974
    This amendment changed the law to include all children of limited English speaking abilities in listening and speaking skills to be serviced which ended the low-income requirement. All schools had to comply whether they received federal funding or not. It also provided funds for curriculum, training for staff and research on bilingual programs.
  • Serna v Portales

    Serna v Portales
    IN this lawsuit, Spanish-named children were denied equal opportunities and were not able to participate. This violated their 14th amendment rights. The school was ordered to incorporate bilingual/bicultural curriculum and hire bilingual teachers and administrators.
  • Lau V Nichols Supreme Court Decision, 1974

    Lau V Nichols Supreme Court Decision, 1974
    This has had the most impact defining the schools responsibility legally to provide English language learning students services. It did describe bilingual education/ESL as possible remedies. This helped raise awareness in the nation for the need of bilingual education.
  • Equal Educational Opportunities Act of 1974

    Equal Educational Opportunities Act of 1974
    This addresses that no state can deny equal education opportunity to anyone based on color, race or national origin. States must overcome language barriers that would hinder equal participation in instruction.
  • Lau Remedies

    Lau Remedies
    This was developed to provide U.S. Office for Civil Rights guidelines for compliance. Assessing students English language proficiency and procedures to identify language minority students were the guidelines. This encouraged schools to provide bilingual education where feasible and bilingual/bicultural instruction.
  • Aspira v Board of Education of the City of New York

    Aspira v Board of Education of the City of New York
    It began when Puerto Ricans in New York sought to obtain equal educational opportunities for children with limited English proficiency. The lawsuit resulted in requiring schools to implement a transitional bilingual educational program. This lawsuit was on behalf of 150,00 Hispanic students and is still in effect today.
  • Bilingual Education Act Reauthorization of 1978

    Bilingual Education Act Reauthorization of 1978
    This reauthorization expanded the eligibility to children of limited English proficiency in listening, speaking, reading and writing. During this time, few policy-makers viewed home language maintenance a priority. The main implication was to prevent segregation of students by their natural origin.
  • Castaneda v Pickard 1981

    Castaneda v Pickard 1981
    The court formulated three criteria for evaluating programs serving LEP students. The program must be based on sound educational theory. The program must be implemented effectively with adequate resources and staff. The program must be evaluated in teaching of language and also the full curriculum. This has been the criteria of making decisions in multiple court cases that have come after this one.
  • Plyler v Doe 1982

    Plyler v Doe 1982
    The Supreme Court issued this as a landmark ruling that guarantees undocumented immigrants to free public education. This based on the fourteenth amendment to the U.S. Constitution.
  • Bilingual Education Act Reauthorization of 1984

    Bilingual Education Act Reauthorization of 1984
    This reauthorization provided more grant programs which included family English literacy, alternative instruction programs and developmental bilingual education that supported home language maintenance. This view was a leap forward in regarding bilingual education as an enrichment program.
  • Bilingual Education Act Reauthorization of 1988

    Bilingual Education Act Reauthorization of 1988
    This law put a funding timeframe of three years and expected the students to be "mainstreamed" into classrooms. This was the main model of short term bilingual education provided to students.
  • Title VII of the Improving America's Schools Act of 1994 and School Reform

    Title VII of the Improving America's Schools Act of 1994 and School Reform
    Formally ESEA. Federal, state & local levels were transitioning to support language minority students. Researchers had national meetings that raised awareness that minority students needs and their bilingual assets were not being considered. Schools made plans to update their plans to include bilingual/ESL education. They set forth that all children can learn high standards, ELL's have equal opportunity to learn all content, and proficiency in two or more languages are encouraged.
  • NCLB: No Child Left Behind Act of 2001

    NCLB: No Child Left Behind Act of 2001
    Federal policy for language-minority students learning English changed dramatically and replaced the ESEA and Bilingual Education Act with Title III: Language Instruction for Limited English Proficient and Immigrant Students. This focused on academic achievement in English and English acquisition not bilingualism.
  • Every Student Succeeds Act Amended 2015

    Every Student Succeeds Act Amended 2015
    This was to assure English learners attain English proficiency and promote parent involvement. This provides professional development for teachers, including preschool to help students enter all-English instructional settings.
  • Califronia's Proposition 58: English Proficiency; Multilingual Education Initiative Statute

    Califronia's Proposition 58: English Proficiency; Multilingual Education Initiative Statute
    This is a repeal of Proposition 227 anti-bilingual education law. Schools can teach bilingual programs. Parents can have input into programs. Schools districts are to collaborate with community members about their English Learner programs.