Homestead ActHomestead Act offered free land in the west.
Homestead Act Required a 10 dollar filling fee.
There was a bunch of free land available in the West.
Transcontinental Railroad CompletedThis railroad is 1776 miles long.
The First Transcontinental Railroad replaced the Pony Express, wagon trains, and stagecoach lines that transported people and goods from the East to the West. These methods of transportation were much slower and much more dangerous than the railroad system.
The Transcontinental Railroad line was important to Abraham Lincoln, but it wasn't completed until four years after he died.
Industrialization Begins to BoomIndustrslizarion allowed for mass production of goods
Cities bagan to over crowed due to many people moving to the factories.
Transportstion and communication was made better.
Boss Tweed rise at Tammany HallBoss Tweed was the leader of Tammany Hall Democratic Political Machines
They liked immigrants and helped them out in exchange for votes.
They made immigrants vote lots of times they justed dressed them up
Telephone InventedThe Telephone was invented by Alexander Graham Bell
The Phone Patent was filled on February 04, 1876
A few hours later American Inventor Elisha Gray filled a same patent but Alexander Graham Bell
Reconstruction EndsRepublican government collapsed thereby ending Reconstruction.
They were thinking of Punishing the South for trying to leave the union.
Abraham Lincoln wanted to be lenient to the South and make it easy for southern states to rejoin the Union.
Jim Crow Laws Start in South
Light Bulb InventedThe light bulb was created by Thomas Edison
J.P. Morgan took all the credit of the invention
The people rejected the light bulb and they were afraid of them
Third Wave of ImmigrationThere was around 1.2 billion immigrants around the third wave of immigration.
Due to a labor shortage in the colonies and the early republic, there were no restrictions or requirements for immigration.
The first federal law requiring ships to keep records of immigration wasn’t passed until 1819. Thus, the first wave of immigrants were all “undocumented aliens.”
Chinese Exclusion ActThe Chinese Exclusion Act was a law that prevented Chinese from entering the U.S. for 10 years.
The Chinese Exclusion Act was passed by Congress and signed by President Chester A. Arthur.
When the exclusion act expired in 1892, Congress extended it for 10 years in the form of the Geary Act.
Pendleton ActThe Pendleton Act cancelled out The Spoil System.
Jobs within the federal government were given out on merit rather than political affiliation.
It also made it illegal to fire or demote government officials for political reasons and prohibited soliciting campaign donations on Federal government property
Dawes ActEach Native American family head was given 320 acres of grazing land or 160 acres of farmland. If they were single or an orphan older than 18 then they were given 80 acres. Singles under 18 were given 40 acres of land.
Prior to the Dawes Act, 150 million acres belonged to Native Americans. Twenty years later two-thirds of this land no longer belonged to the Native Americans.
The land allotted to each Native American family could be sold after a period of twenty-five years.
Interstate Commerce ActThe Interstate commerce act was designed to regulate the railroad industry, particularly its monopolistic practices.
The Act required that railroad rates be "reasonable and just," but did not empower the government to fix specific rates.
It required that railroads publicize shipping rates and prohibited short haul or long haul fare discrimination.
Andrew Carnegie’s Gospel of WealthThe book was written to promote Philanthropy.
Andrew Carnegie argued rich men should give their wealth for public good while still alive.
He believed strongly in giving back to the community and he gave back 90% of his wealth back to the community.
Chicago's Hull HouseHull House, one of the first social settlements in North America.
Twelve large buildings were added from year to year until Hull House covered half a city block.
Hull House opened as a kindergarten but soon expanded to include a day nursery and an infancy care center.
Klondike Gold RushThe Klondike Gold Rush was the migration of an estimated 100,000 prospectors to the Klondike region of the Yukon in north-western Canada between 1896 and 1899.
When the gold was discovered people rushed and often left ghost towns behind.
Prospectors often had to bring years of supplies and up ton 1 tons worth of tools.
Sherman Anti-Trust ActSherman Anti-Trust Act was a law that prevented monopoly from forming unless they were good ones.
It also prevented people from getting what they want if they helped a candidate win.
A loophole was later found that allowed people/business owners to pay/fund the candidate and get what they want.
How the Other Half LivesThis book was written by Jacob Riis.
His father was a school-teacher. Young Riis early showed a sensitive disposition and a faith in people that would sustain him through difficult days.
He talked of how the poor people lived compared to the rich.
Influence Sea Power Upon HistoryThis book was written by Alfred Thayer Mahan
The book details the role of sea power during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
Mahan formulated his concept of sea power while reading a history book in Lima, Peru.
Homestead Steel Labor StrikeHomestead Strike, also called Homestead riot, violent labor dispute between the Carnegie Steel Company and many of its workers.
The company was owned by Andrew Carnegie but managed by Henry Clay Frick.
Frick closed the mill and locked the workers out on 1 July, after they rejected his proposed 22 percent wage cut.
Pullman Labor StrikeThe Pullman cut the already low wages of its workers by about 25 percent.
It did not introduce corresponding reductions in rents and other charges at Pullman. Many workers and their families faced starvation.
A delegation of workers tried to present their grievances about low wages, poor living conditions, and 16-hour workdays. To the company’s president, George M. Pullman, he refused to meet with them and ordered them fired.
Plessy v. Ferguson
Annexation of HawaiiNativist kicked Queen Liliuokalani out of Hawaii.
Dole declared Hawaii an independent republic. Spurred by the nationalism aroused by the Spanish-American War, the United States annexed Hawaii in 1898 at the urging of President William McKinley.
Hawaii was made a territory in the 1900 and Dole was the first governor.
Spanish American WarA ship blew up and it created The Spanish-American War.
The Spanish-American War lasted 3 months 2 weeks and 4 days.
The Cubans were being treated horribly by the Spanish, which led to Cuba's desire for independence.
Open Door PolicyDoor policy, statement of principles initiated by the United States in 1899 and 1900 for the protection of equal privileges among countries trading with China and in support of Chinese territorial and administrative integrity.
he principle that all countries should have equal access to any of the ports open to trade in China.
Great Britain had greater interests in China than any other power and successfully maintained the policy of the open door until the late 19th century.
Assassination of President McKinleyPresident McKinley was shaking hands with the public when Leon Czolgosz, an anarchist, shot him twice in the abdomen.
President McKinley died eight days later on September 14.
American president to have been assassinated, following Abraham Lincoln in 1865 and James A. Garfield in 1881.
Wright Brothers Plane Airplane
Panama Canal U.S. Construction BeginsThe Panama Canal connects the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. It is a 48 mile canal that is important for international maritime trade.
Construction of the canal began in 1881 by France, but there were engineering problems and too many people were dying due to disease.
Construction stopped when The U.S. took over.
The JungleThis Book was written by Upton Sinclair
It exposed factories about the conditions there where rats flies etc...
The pure food and drug act was passed as a result.
Pure Food and Drug ActUpton Sinclair Wrote the Book "The Jungle" this Act was later passed on.
It helped prevent the manufacturing, sale, or transportation of adulterated, misbranded, poisonous, or deleterious foods, drugs, medicines, and liquors, and for regulating traffic therein, and for other purposes.
Food and Drug Act increased company standards they had to be more sanitary.
Model-TThe Model T was the first car to be affordable for a majority of Americans. They were manufactured in assembly lines which made it more easier to make.
Worker concentrated doing their part only it made putting cars together way quicker and faster.
They could put 15 cars together in a day.
NAACPW.E.B. Du Bois was the founder of NAACP.
NAACP had 425,000 members.
Segregation was in schools was declared unconstitutional.
16th AmendmentThe Sixteenth Amendment allows the U.S. government to collect taxes and incomes.
William H. Taft was the President of the United States during the ratification of the 16th Amendment
Prohibited the implementation of unapportioned and direct taxation; as a result, the levy of income tax.
Federal Reserve ActOn December 23, 1913, President Woodrow Wilson (1913–1921) signed the Federal Reserve Act, and thereby created the Federal Reserve System.
Law gave paper tendency a value because the government says it worth something.
Took the gold standard system away.
17th AmendmentThe 17th amendment provides for regular voters to elect their Senators.
This fixed the problem with letting representatives choose representatives which led to corruption.
17th amendment was proposed in 1912 and was completely ratified by 1913.
National Parks SystemThe National Park System, protects round 407 sites covering more than 84 million acres of land.
In 2014, more than 290 million people visited the National Parks.
Originally established by Congress as Hot Springs Reservation in 1832 and later becoming a national park in 1921, Hot Springs National Park represents the oldest protected area in the National Park System.
18th AmendmentThe 18th Amendment Prohibited the drinking and sale of Alcohol.
The Volstead act was passed alongside it.
Man started drinking more than ever.
19th AmendmentThis amendment gave woman the right to vote.
August 18, 1920 was the day woman were granted the right to vote.
Some lady opposed suffrage not all opposed were men.
President Harding's Return to NomalcyPresident Harding promised a “return to normalcy” and argued against the U.S. joining the League of Nations.
Harding criticizes the wasteful spending that occurred during the nation’s massive military mobilization for World War I.
Billions had been spent for planes, ships and shells that were never put into action, partly because of America’s late entry into the conflict.
Harlem RenaissanceThe major cause of Harlem Renaissance was the Great Migration.
Although the event was centered in Harlem, it was a nationwide movement.
Journalist played an integral part in the development of the movement.
Teapot Dome ScandalThe Teapot Dome Scandal was a bribery incident that took place in the United States.
It lasted from 1921 to 1922, during the administration of President Warren G. Harding.
Congress directed President Harding to cancel the leases;the Supreme Court declared the leases fraudulent and ruled illegal Harding’s transfer of authority to Fall.
Joseph Stalin Leads USSRJoseph Stalin (1878-1953) was the dictator of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) from 1929 to 1953.
Under Stalin, the Soviet Union was transformed from a peasant society into an industrial and military superpower.
However, he ruled by terror, and millions of his own citizens died during his brutal reign.
He was also born in poverty.
Scopes "Monkey" Trial“Monkey Trial” begins with John Thomas Scopes, a young high school science teacher, accused of teaching evolution in violation of a Tennessee state law.
The law, which had been passed in March, made it a misdemeanor punishable by fine.
Hearing of this coordinated attack on Christian fundamentalism, William Jennings Bryan, the three-time Democratic presidential candidate and a fundamentalist hero, volunteered to assist the prosecution.
Mein Kampf PublishedMein Kampf is a 1925 autobiographical book by Nazi Party leader Adolf Hitler.
The work describes the process by which Hitler became antisemitic and outlines his political ideology and future plans for Germany. Hitler was charged with treason. Such an offence carried the death penalty in Germany at this time.
Charles Lindbergh's Trans-Atlantic FlightAmerican pilot Charles A. Lindbergh lands at Le Bourget Field in Paris, successfully completing the first solo, nonstop transatlantic flight and the first ever nonstop flight between New York to Paris.
His single-engine monoplane, The Spirit of St. Louis, had lifted off from Roosevelt Field in New York 33 1/2 hours before.
In May 1919, the first transatlantic flight was made by a U.S. hydroplane that flew from New York to Plymouth, England, via Newfoundland, the Azores Islands, and Lisbon.
St. Valentine's Day Massacrewarfare ruled the streets of Chicago during the late 1920s, as chief gangster Al Capone sought to consolidate control by eliminating his rivals in the illegal trades of bootlegging, gambling and prostitution.
This rash of gang violence reached its bloody climax in garage on the city’s North Side on February 14, 1929.
Seven men associated with the Irish gangster George “Bugs” Moran, one of Capone’s longtime enemies, were shot to death by several men dressed as policemen.
Stock Market Crashes "Black Tuesday"The Wall Street Crash of 1929, also known as Black Tuesday (October 29), the Great Crash, or the Stock Market Crash of 1929, began on October 24, 1929 ("Black Thursday")
It was the most devastating stock market crash in the history of the United States (acting as the most significant predicting indicator of the Great Depression)
The crash, which followed the London Stock Exchange's crash of September,signaled the beginning of the 12-year Great Depression that affected all Western dev country.
HoovervillesA "Hooverville" was a shanty town built during the Great Depression by the homeless in the United States of America.
They were named after Herbert Hoover, who was President of the United States of America during the onset of the Depression and was widely blamed for it.
There were hundreds of Hoovervilles across the country during the 1930s and hundreds of thousands of people lived in these slums.
Smoot-Hawley TariffSmoot-Hawley Tariff Act, formally United States Tariff Act of 1930, also called Hawley-Smoot Tariff Act.
U.S. legislation (June 17, 1930) that raised import duties to protect American businesses and farmers, adding considerable strain to the international economic climate of the Great Depression.
It was the last legislation under which the U.S. Congress set actual tariff rates.
100,000 Banks Have FailedIn the 1920s, Nebraska and the nation as a whole had a lot of banks. At the beginning of the 20s, Nebraska had 1.3 million people and there was one bank for every 1,000 people
very small town had a bank or two struggling to take in deposits and loan out money to farmers and businesses.
As the economic depression deepened in the early 30s, and as farmers had less and less money to spend in town, banks began to fail at alarming rates. During the 20s, there was around 70 banks failing each year.
Agriculture Adjustment Administration (AAA)Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA), in American history, major New Deal program to restore agricultural prosperity by curtailing farm production, reducing export surpluses, and raising prices.
The Agricultural Adjustment Act (May 1933) was an omnibus farm-relief bill of the major national farm organizations.
It established the Agricultural Adjustment Administration under Secretary of Agriculture Henry Wallace effect a “domestic allotment”.
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), independent U.S. government corporation created under authority of the Banking Act of 1933.
It had the responsibility to insure bank deposits in eligible banks against loss in the event of a bank failure and to regulate certain banking practices.
It was established after the collapse of many American banks during the initial years of the Great Depression.
Public Works Administration (PWA)The Public Works Administration (PWA) budgeted several billion dollars to be spent on the construction of public works.
It was done on means of providing employment, stabilizing purchasing power, improving public welfare, and contributing to a revival of American industry.
Frances Perkins had first suggested a federally financed public works program, and the idea received considerable support from Harold Ickes, James Farley, and Henry Wallace.
Hitler appointed Chancellor of Germany
Dust BowlThe Dust Bowl refers to the drought-stricken Southern Plains region of the United States, which suffered severe dust storms during a dry period in the 1930s.
As high winds and choking dust swept the region from Texas to Nebraska, people and livestock were killed and crops failed across the entire region.
The Dust Bowl intensified the crushing economic impacts of the Great Depression and drove many farming families on a desperate migration in search of work and better living conditions.
Social Security Administration (SSA)The Social Security Act was signed into law by President Roosevelt on August 14, 1935.
In addition to several provisions for general welfare, the new Act created a social insurance program designed to pay retired workers age 65 or older a continuing income after retirement.
Act was put in place during the Great Depression to help get out.
Rape of Nanjing
Hitler invades Poland
German Blitzkrieg attacks
Pearl HarborMost of the battleships sunk that day were resurrected.
Veterans of the attack can be laid to rest at Pearl Harbor.
The USS Arizona still leaks fuel.
Service members stationed in Hawaii took care of the memorial during the 2013 government shutdown.
Many tourists from Japan come to visit the memorial.
A baby girl’s remains still lie entombed within a sunken battleship.
There’s a huge oil plume beneath the harbor.
Tuskegee AirmenThe Tuskegee airmen once shot down three German jets in a single day.
Thurgood Marshall, the future Supreme Court justice, got his start defending Tuskegee bomber trainees.
The Airmen might have never gotten off the ground without Eleanor Roosevelt’s help.
A former Tuskegee airman almost shot the late Libyan leader Muammar el-Qaddafi in a showdown outside of Tripoli in 1970.
Three Tuskegee airmen went on to become generals.
Navajo Code TalkerNavajo Code Talker Test program was started in 1942, which consisted of the original 29.
The age of the Code Talkers were between 18 and 25.
Phillip Johnston came up with the idea of using the Navajo language as a code in WWII.
In total there was 420 Navajo Code Talkers.
Sixteen Navajo Code Talkers were killed in action.
Executive Order 9066The U.S. Executive Order 9066 was signed by President Franklin Roosevelt during World War II on Feb. 19, 1942.
It authorized the Secretary of War to designate specific areas in the country as military zones.
The E.O. 9066 eventually resulted to the relocation of several Japanese-Americans to detention camps.
Bataan Death MarchBataan Death March, march in the Philippines of some 66 miles (106 km) that 76,000 prisoners of war. (66,000 Filipinos, 10,000 Americans)
Were forced by the Japanese military to endure in April 1942, during the early stages of World War II.
Mainly starting in Mariveles, on the southern tip of the Bataan Peninsula, on April 9, 1942, the prisoners were force-marched north to San Fernando and then taken by rail in cramped and unsanitary boxcars farther north to Capas.
Invasion of Normandy (D-Day)During World War II (1939-1945), the Battle of Normandy, which lasted from June 1944 to August 1944, resulted in the Allied liberation of Western Europe from Nazi Germany’s control.
Code named Operation Overlord, the battle began on June 6, 1944, also known as D-Day, when some 156,000 American, British and Canadian forces landed on five beaches along a 50-mile stretch of the heavily fortified coast of France’s Normandy region.
The invasion was one of the largest amphibious military assaults.
GI BillThe Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944, also known as the G.I. Bill, was a law that provided a range of benefits for returning World War II veterans.
It was designed by the American Legion, who helped push it through Congress by mobilizing its chapters; the goal was to provide immediate rewards for practically all World War II veterans.
The act avoided the highly disputed postponed life insurance policy payout for World War I veterans.
Atomic bombing of Nagasaki and HiroshimaOn August 6, 1945, during World War II (1939-45), an American B-29 bomber dropped the world’s first deployed atomic bomb over the Japanese city of Hiroshima.
The explosion wiped out 90 percent of the city and immediately killed 80,000 people; tens of thousands more would later die of radiation exposure.
Three days later, a second B-29 dropped another A-bomb on Nagasaki, killing an estimated 40,000 people. Japan’s Emperor Hirohito announced his country’s unconditional surrender in World War II.
Victory over Japan/Pacific (VJ/VP) DayVictory over Japan Day also called V-J Day, Victory in the Pacific Day, or V-P Day is the day on which Imperial Japan surrendered in World War II, ending WWII.
On the afternoon of August 15, 1945, it was announced in Japan, and August 14, 1945 it was announced in the United States due to time difference.
As well as to September 2, 1945, when the signing of the surrender document occurred, officially ending World War II.
Liberation of Concentration CampsSoviet soldiers were the first to liberate concentration camp prisoners in the final stages of the war.
On July 23, 1944, they entered the Majdanek camp in Poland, and later overran several other killing centers.
On January 27, 1945, they entered Auschwitz and there found hundreds of sick and exhausted prisoners.
The Germans had been forced to leave these prisoners behind in their hasty retreat from the camp.
Victory in Europe (VE) DayOn this day in 1945, both Great Britain and the United States celebrate Victory in Europe Day.
Cities in both nations, as well as formerly occupied cities in Western Europe, put out flags and banners, rejoicing in the defeat of the Nazi war machine.The eighth of May spelled the day when German troops throughout Europe finally laid down their arms: In Prague, Germans surrendered to their Soviet antagonists, after the latter had lost more than 8,000 soldiers, and the Germans considerably more.
United Nations (UN) FormedThe name "United Nations", coined by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt was first used in the Declaration by United Nations of 1 January 1942, during the Second World War, when representatives of 26 nations pledged their Governments to continue fighting together against the Axis Powers.
In 1945, representatives of 50 countries met in San Francisco at the United Nations Conference on International Organization to draw up the United Nations Charter.
Germany DividedDuring 1945, the Allies began organising their respective occupation zones in Germany.
The Americans occupied the South, the British the West and North, France the South-West, and the Soviets Central Germany.
The Eastern part was administered by Poland, except the town of Königsberg (renamed Kaliningrad) and its surrounding area, which were annexed by the USSR. Berlin was divided into four sectors and placed under the administrative control of the Allied Kommandatura.
Nuremberg TrialsThe Nuremberg trials were a series of military tribunals held by the Allied forces under international law and the laws of war after World War II.
Judges from the Allied powers—Great Britain, France, the Soviet Union, and the United States—presided over the hearings of twenty-two major Nazi criminals.
Twelve prominent Nazis were sentenced to death. Most of defendants admitted to the crimes of which they were accused, but most claimed that they simply followed the orders of a higher authority.
Truman DoctrineThe American policy of "Containment" soon expanded into a policy known as the Truman Doctrine.
This doctrine, first used in Greece and Turkey in the late 1940s, vowed to provide aid (money & military supplies) to support "free people who are resisting outside pressures"
By 1950, the U.S. had given $400 million in aid to Greece and Turkey.
Marshall PlanThe Marshall Plan was a US-financed relief package, providing funds to European nations to assist their reconstruction after the devastation of WW2.
In order to stop communism from spreading in war torn Europe, Secretary of State Marshall proposed investing in the European economy.
Congress approved 12.6 billion dollars in aid to Europe.
Berlin AirliftThe Soviet Union put a blockade hoping for West Berlin to become communist.
Eventually the U.S. found a way around by flying supplies over to West Berlin.
Eventually the Soviet union lifted the blockade because they saw it was unsuccessful and West Berlin remained capitalist.
NATO FormedThe North Atlantic Treaty Organization was formed shortly after the end of the Second World War to counter the threat of Soviet invasion of Western Europe.
The treaty setting up the alliance was signed in 1949 by 10 Western European nations as well as Canada and the United States.
NATO's mandate is to provide a common defence for the European and Atlantic areas, and to address common issues faced by the member countries.
Kim Il-sung invades South KoreaIn December 1945, the Soviets installed Kim as chairman of the North Korean branch of the Korean Communist Party.
Prior to Kim's invasion of the South in 1950, which triggered the Korean War, Joseph Stalin equipped the KPA with modern, Soviet-built heavy tanks, trucks, artillery, and small arms.
Cease-fire was signed on 27 July 1953. He was the second longest-serving non-royal head of state/government in the 20th century, in office for more than 45 years.
UN forces push North Korea to Yalu River- the border with ChinaThe Chinese Army entered the Korean War in earnest with a violent attack against the American and United Nations forces in North Korea.
The 300,000-man Chinese offensive caught the U.N. forces off guard, largely because of U.S. Gen. Douglas MacArthur's belief that China would not openly enter the war, and vastly expanded the conflict.
The Korean War began when communist North Korean forces invaded democratic South Korea on June 25, 1950.
Chinese forces cross Yalu and enter Korean WarThe North Korean People’s Army of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea swept across the 38th parallel.
They came close to uniting the Korean peninsula under the Communist regime of Kim Il-sung.
American military and civilian leaders were caught by surprise, and only the intercession of poorly trained and equipped US garrison troops from Japan managed to halt the North Korean advance at a high price in American dead and wounded.
Ethel and Julius Rosenberg ExecutionJulius and Ethel Rosenberg, a married couple convicted of conspiracy to commit espionage in 1951, are put to death in the electric chair.
The execution marked the dramatic finale of the most controversial espionage case of the Cold War.
Julius was arrested in July 1950, and Ethel in August of that same year, on the charge of conspiracy to commit espionage.
Specifically, they were accused of heading a spy ring that passed top-secret information concerning the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union.
Armistice SignedAfter three years of a bloody and frustrating war, the United States, the People’s Republic of China, North Korea, and South Korea agree to an armistice, bringing the Korean War to an end.
The Korean War began on June 25, 1950, when communist North Korea invaded South Korea.
Almost immediately, the United States secured a resolution from the United Nations calling for the military defense of South Korea against the North Korean aggression.
Hernandez v. TexasHernandez as a landmark case, "the first and only Mexican-American civil-rights case heard and decided by the United States Supreme Court during the post-World War II period.
In a unanimous ruling, the court held that Mexican Americans and all other nationality groups in the United States had equal protection under the 14th Amendment of the U.S. Constitution.
This was the first case in which Mexican-American lawyers had appeared before the US Supreme Court.
Brown v. Board of Educationwas a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared that having separate school for white and black was illegal.
The decision effectively overturned the Plessy v. Ferguson decision of 1896, and applied to public education.
On May 17, 1954, the Warren Court's unanimous (9–0) decision stated that "separate educational facilities are inherently unequal." As a result, ruled a violation of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
Ho Chi Minh Established Communist Rule in VietnamHo Chi Minh first emerged as an outspoken voice for Vietnamese independence while living as a young man in France during World War I.
Inspired by the Bolshevik Revolution, he joined the Communist Party and traveled to the Soviet Union.
He helped found the Indochinese Communist Party in 1930 and the League for the Independence of Vietnam, or Viet Minh, in 1941.
Warsaw Pact FormedThe Warsaw Pact was a military and political alliance between the USSR and seven communist satellite nations behind the Iron Curtain.
The date the Warsaw Pact was signed was on May 14, 1955 during the Cold War.
The treaty was signed two weeks after West Germany was admitted into NATO on May 5, 1955 with restrictive provisions for West Germany to form an army.
Polio VaccinePolio vaccines are vaccines used to prevent poliomyelitis (polio). There are two types: one that uses inactivated poliovirus and is given by injection (IPV), and one that uses weakened poliovirus and is given by mouth (OPV).
The World Health Organization recommends all children be fully vaccinated against polio.
The two vaccines have eliminated polio from most of the world,and reduced the number of cases reported each year from an estimated 350,000 in 1988 to 37 in 2016.
Interstate Highway ActThe Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956, popularly known as the National Interstate and Defense Highways Act (Public Law 84-627), was enacted on June 29, 1956, when President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed the bill into law. With an original authorization of US$25 billion for the construction of 41,000 miles (66,000 km) of the Interstate Highway System.
Supposedly over a 10-year period, it was the largest public works project in American history through that time.
Elvis Presley First Hit SongElvis Aaron Presley (January 8, 1935 – August 16, 1977) was an American singer, musician, and actor.
Regarded as one of the most significant cultural icons of the 20th century, he is often referred to as the "King of Rock and Roll" or simply "the King".
Presley was born in Tupelo, Mississippi, and relocated to Memphis, Tennessee, with his family when he was 13 years old.
Sputnik lSputnik l as the first artificial Earth satellite. The Soviet Union launched it into an elliptical low Earth orbit on 4 October 1957.
Its radio signal was easily detectable even by radio amateurs,and the 65° inclination and duration of its orbit made its flight path cover virtually the entire inhabited Earth.
This surprise success precipitated the American Sputnik crisis and triggered the Space Race, a part of the Cold War.
Leave it to Beaver First Airs on TVLeave It to Beaver is an American television sitcom about an inquisitive and often naïve boy, Theodore "The Beaver" Cleaver, and his adventures at home, in school, and around his suburban neighborhood.
The show also starred Barbara Billingsley and Hugh Beaumont as Beaver's parents, June and Ward Cleaver, and Tony Dow as Beaver's brother Wally.
The show has attained an iconic status in the United States, with the Cleavers exemplifying the idealized suburban family of the mid-20th century.
Civil Right Act
Kennedy versus Nixon TV DebateIn 1960, John F. Kennedy and Richard Nixon squared off in the first televised presidential debates in American history.
The Kennedy-Nixon debates not only had a major impact on the election’s outcome, but ushered in a new era in which crafting a public image and taking advantage of media exposure became essential ingredients of a successful political campaign.
They also heralded the central role television has continued to play in the democratic process.
Bay of Pigs InvasionThe Bay of Pigs Invasion was a failed military invasion of Cuba undertaken by the Central Intelligence Agency on 17 April 1961.
A counter-revolutionary military group (made up of mostly Cuban exiles who traveled to the United States after Castro's takeover, but also of some US military personnel), trained and funded by the CIA. Brigade 2506 fronted the armed wing of the Democratic Revolutionary Front and intended to overthrow the increasingly communist government of Fidel Castro.
Peace Corps FormedThe Peace Corps is a volunteer program run by the United States government.
The stated mission of the Peace Corps includes providing technical assistance, helping people outside the United States to understand American culture, and helping Americans to understand the cultures of other countries.
Each program participant, a Peace Corps Volunteer, is an American citizen, typically with a college degree, who works abroad for a period of two years after three months of training.
Mapp v. OhioLandmark case in criminal procedure, in which the United States Supreme Court decided that evidence obtained in violation of the Fourth Amendment " may not be used in state law criminal prosecutions in state courts.
As well as in federal criminal law prosecutions in federal courts as had previously been the law.
The Supreme Court accomplished this by use of a principle known as selective incorporation Fourteenth Amendment due process clause which is applicable to actions of the states.
Cuban Missle CrisisDuring the Cuban Missile Crisis, leaders of the U.S. and the Soviet Union engaged in a tense, 13-day political and military standoff.
In October 1962 over the installation of nuclear-armed Soviet missiles on Cuba, just 90 miles from U.S. shores.
President John Kennedy (1917-63) notified Americans about the presence of the missiles, explained his decision to enact a naval blockade around Cuba and made it clear the U.S. was prepared to use military force if necessary to neutralize threat.
Kennedy Assassinated in Dallas, TexasJohn F. Kennedy, the 35th President of the United States, was assassinated on Friday, November 22, 1963, at 12:30 p.m.
In Dallas, Texas while riding in a presidential motorcade in Dealey Plaza. Kennedy was riding with his wife Jacqueline, Texas Governor John Connally, and Connally's wife, Nellie, and was fatally shot by former U.S. Marine Lee Harvey Oswald.
A ten-month investigation by the Warren Commission from Nov 1963 to Sept 1964 concluded that Oswald acted alone in shooting Kennedy.
Gideon v. WainwrightA landmark case in United States Supreme Court history. In it, the Supreme Court unanimously ruled that states are required under the Sixth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.
To provide counsel in criminal cases to represent defendants who are unable to afford to pay their own attorneys.
The case extended the right to counsel, which had been found under the Fifth and Sixth Amendments to impose requirements on the federal government.
The Great SocietyThe Great Society was a set of domestic programs in the United States launched by Democratic President Lyndon B. Johnson in 1964–65.
The main goal was the elimination of poverty and racial injustice. President Johnson first used the term "Great Society" during a speech at Ohio University, then unveiled the program in greater detail at an appearance at University of Michigan.
New major spending programs that addressed education, medical care, urban problems, rural poverty, and transportation.
Escobedo v. IllinoisEscobedo v. Illinois, was a United States Supreme Court case holding that criminal suspects have a right to counsel during police interrogations under the Sixth Amendment.
The case was decided a year after the court held in Gideon v. Wainwright, (1963) that indigent criminal defendants had a right to be provided counsel at trial.
Danny Escobedo's brother-in-law, Manuel Valtierra, was shot and killed on the night of January 19, 1960. Escobedo was arrested without a warrant and interrogated.
Gulf of Tonkin ResolutionThe Gulf of Tonkin Resolution or the Southeast Asia Resolution, enacted August 10, 1964, was a joint resolution that the United States Congress passed on August 7, 1964, in response to the Gulf of Tonkin incident.
It is of historical significance because it gave U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson authorization, without a formal declaration of war by Congress.
Specifically, the resolution authorized the President to do whatever necessary in order to assist.
Miranda v. ArizonaMiranda v. Arizona, was a landmark decision of the United States Supreme Court.
The Court held that both inculpatory and exculpatory statements made in response to interrogation by a defendant in police custody will be admissible at trial only if the prosecution can show that the defendant was informed of the right to consult with an attorney. Before and during questioning and of the right against self-incrimination before police questioning.
Thurgood Marshall Appointed to Supreme Court
Tet OffensiveThe Tet Offensive was a coordinated series of North Vietnamese attacks on more than 100 cities and outposts in South Vietnam.
The offensive was an attempt to foment rebellion among the South Vietnamese population and encourage the United States to scale back its involvement in the Vietnam War.
Though U.S. and South Vietnamese forces managed to hold off the attacks, news coverage of the massive offensive shocked the American public and eroded support for the war effort.
My Lai MassacreThe My Lai massacre was one of the most horrific incidents of violence committed against unarmed civilians during the Vietnam War.
A company of American soldiers brutally killed most of the people—women, children and old men—in the village of My Lai on March 16, 1968.
More than 500 people were slaughtered in the My Lai massacre, including young girls and women who were raped and mutilated before being killed. U.S. Army officers covered up the carnage for a year.
Tinker v. Des MoinesDecision by the United States Supreme Court that defined the constitutional rights of students in U.S. public schools.
The Tinker test is still used by courts today to determine whether a school's disciplinary actions violate students' First Amendment rights.
The court's 7–2 decision held that the First Amendment applied to public schools, and that administrators would have to demonstrate constitutionally valid reasons for any specific regulation of speech in the classroom.
VietnamizationVietnamization was a strategy that aimed to reduce American involvement in the Vietnam War by transferring all military responsibilities to South Vietnam.
The increasingly unpopular war had created deep rifts in American society.
President Nixon believed his Vietnamization strategy, which involved building up South Vietnam’s armed forces and withdrawing U.S. troops, would prepare the South Vietnamese to act in their own defense against a North Vietnamese takeover.
Woodstock Music FestivalOn this day in 1969, the grooviest event in music history–the Woodstock Music Festival–draws to a close after three days of peace, love and rock ‘n’ roll in upstate New York.
Conceived as “Three Days of Peace and Music,” Woodstock was a product of a partnership between John Roberts, Joel Rosenman, Artie Kornfield and Michael Lang.
Their idea was to make enough money from the event to build a recording studio near the arty New York town of Woodstock.
Draft LotteryThe Selective Service System of the United States conducted two lotteries to determine the order of call to military service in the Vietnam War for men born from 1944 to 1950.
These lotteries occurred during a period of conscription from just before World War II to 1973.
It was the first time a lottery system had been used to select men for military service since 1942.
Manson Family MurdersThe Manson Family was a commune established in California in the late 1960s, led by Charles Manson.
They gained national notoriety after the murder of actress Sharon Tate and four others on August 9, 1969 by Tex Watson and three other members of the Family, acting under the instructions of Charles Manson.
Group members were also responsible for a number of other murders and assaults.
Invasion of CambodiaThe Cambodian–Vietnamese War was an armed conflict between the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and Democratic Kampuchea.
The war began with isolated clashes along the land and maritime boundaries of Vietnam and Kampuchea between 1975 and 1977, occasionally involving division-sized military formations.
On 25 December 1978, Vietnam launched a full-scale invasion of Kampuchea and subsequently occupied the country and removed the Khmer Rouge government from power.
Kent State ShootingsFour Kent State University students were killed and nine were injured on May 4, 1970, when members of the Ohio National Guard opened fire on a crowd gathered to protest the Vietnam War.
The tragedy was a watershed moment for a nation divided by the conflict in Southeast Asia.
In its immediate aftermath, a student-led strike forced the temporary closure of colleges and universities across the country.
Pentagon PapersThe Pentagon Papers was the name given to a top-secret Department of Defense study of U.S. political and military involvement in Vietnam from 1945 to 1967.
As the Vietnam War dragged on, with more than 500,000 U.S. troops in Vietnam by 1968, military analyst Daniel Ellsberg—who had worked on the study—came to oppose the war.
And decided that the information contained in the Pentagon Papers should be available to the American public.
26th AmendmentThe long debate over lowering the voting age in America from 21 to 18 began during World War II and intensified during the Vietnam War, when young men denied the right to vote.
In the 1970 case Oregon v. Mitchell, a divided U.S. Supreme Court ruled that Congress had the right to regulate the minimum age in federal elections, but not at the state and local level.
Law that said if you can fight then you can also vote 18th to vote applied to both.
War Powers ResolutionWar Powers Resolution is a federal law intended to check the president's power to commit the United States to an armed conflict without the consent of the U.S. Congress.
The Resolution was adopted in the form of a United States Congress joint resolution.
It provides that the U.S. President can send U.S. Armed Forces into action abroad only by declaration of war by Congress, "statutory authorization," or in case of "a national emergency created by attack upon the United States.
Fall of SaigonThe Fall of Saigon was the capture of Saigon, the capital of South Vietnam, by the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) and the National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (also known as the Việt Cộng) on 30 April 1975.
The event marked the end of the Vietnam War and the start of a transition period to the formal reunification of Vietnam under the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
The PAVN, under the command of General Văn Tiến Dũng, began their final attack on Saigon on April 29, 1975.
American CIvil War
Gilded AgeThe Gilded Age was an era of rapid economic growth, especially in the North and West.
Railroads were the major growth industry, with the factory system, mining, and finance increasing in importance.
The political landscape was notable in that despite some corruption, turnout was very high and national elections saw two evenly matched parties.
Progressive EraThe Progressive Era was a period of widespread social activism and political reform across the United States, from the 1890s to the 1920s.
The main objectives of the Progressive movement were eliminating problems caused by industrialization, urbanization, immigration, and corruption in government.
Passed various act including the No child labor, Interstate Commerce Act, Pendleton Act, etc...
ImperialismTime Period that the country wanted to expand its power and and influence through diplomacy or military force.
800 years ago, Ireland became the first colony of what later became known as the British empire.
Imperialism forces millions of children around the world to live nightmarish lives.
Theodore RooseveltPolitical Parties:Republican and Progressive (Bull Moose) Party
Domestic Policy: Square Deal (3C's), Trust Busting, Consumer, Conservation (nature)
William Howard TaftPolitical Parties: Republican
Domestic Policy: 3C's ☹
Woodrow WilsonPolitical Party: Democratic
Domestic Policy: Clayton Anti-Trust Act, National Parks Service, Federal Reserve Act, 18th/19th amendments
Roaring TwentiesThe 1920s were an age of dramatic social and political change.
For the first time, more Americans lived in cities than on farms.
The nation’s total wealth more than doubled between 1920 and 1929, and this economic growth swept many Americans into an affluent but unfamiliar “consumer society.”
The Great DepressionThe Great Depression was caused by the Stock Market Crash.
The United States became so poor and Banks Failed.
President Hoover was blamed largely for making the situation worse.
President Franklin D Roosevelt was the President who got the United States out of the depression.
Franklin D. RooseveltFranklin D. Roosevelt was in his second term as governor of New York when he was elected as the nation’s 32nd president in 1932. With the country mired in the depths of the Great Depression, Roosevelt immediately acted to restore public confidence, proclaiming a bank holiday and speaking directly to the public in a series of radio broadcasts or “fireside chats.”
His ambitious slate of New Deal programs and reforms redefined the role of the federal government in the lives of Americans.
New Deal ProgramsThe Great Depression in the United States began on October 29, 1929, a day known forever after as “Black Tuesday,” when the American stock market.
which had been roaring steadily upward for almost a decade–crashed, plunging the country into its most severe economic downturn yet.
Speculators lost their shirts; banks failed; the nation’s money supply diminished; and companies went bankrupt and began to fire their workers in droves.
The HolocaustThe Holocaust began in January 1933 when Hitler came to power and technically ended on May 8, 1945 (VE Day).
Over 1.1 million children died during the Holocaust (Children Mainly Targeted).
The most intensive Holocaust killing took place in September 1941 at the Babi Yar Ravine just outside of Kiev, Ukraine, where more than 33,000 Jews were killed in just two days.
World War ll
Harry S. Truman
Baby BoomThe end of World War II brought a baby boom to many countries, especially Western ones.
There is some disagreement as to the precise beginning and ending dates of the post-war baby boom, but it is most often agreed to have begun in the years immediately after the war, though some place it earlier at the increase of births in 1941–1943.
The boom started to decline as birth rates in the United States started to decline in 1958, though the boom would only grind to a halt 3 years later.
The Cold WarCold War, the open yet restricted rivalry that developed after World War II between the United States and the Soviet Union and their respective allies.
The Cold War was waged on political, economic, and propaganda fronts and had only limited recourse to weapons.
George Orwell predicted would be a nuclear stalemate between “two or three monstrous super-states, each possessed of a weapon by which millions of people can be wiped out in a few seconds.”
Korea WarOn June 25, 1950, the Korean War began when some 75,000 soldiers from the North Korean People’s Army poured across the 38th parallel.
The boundary between the Soviet-backed Democratic People’s Republic of Korea to the north and the pro-Western Republic of Korea to the south.
This invasion was the first military action of the Cold War. By July, American troops had entered the war on South Korea’s behalf.
1950s ProsperityAmerica at this moment,” said the former British Prime Minister Winston Churchill in 1945, “stands at the summit of the world.”
During the 1950s, it was easy to see what Churchill meant. The United States was the world’s strongest military power.
Its economy was booming, and the fruits of this prosperity–new cars, suburban houses and other consumer goods–were available to more people than ever before. However, the 1950s were also an era of great conflict.
Dwight D. EisenhowerDwight D. Eisenhower was an American Army general and statesman who served as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 to 1961.
During World War II, he was a five-star general in the United States Army and served as Supreme Commander of the Allied Expeditionary Forces in Europe.
He was the first American President to be bound by the 22nd Amendment, which limits the number of times one can be elected to as President of U.S.A.
Warren CourtThe Warren Court was the period in the history of the Supreme Court of the United States during which Earl Warren served as Chief Justice.
Warren replaced the deceased Fred M. Vinson as Chief Justice in 1953, and Warren remained in office until he retired in 1969.
Warren led a liberal majority that used judicial power in dramatic fashion, to the consternation of conservative opponents. The Warren Court expanded civil rights, civil liberties, judicial power, and federal power in dramatic ways
Vietnam WarThe Vietnam War,also known in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.
It was the second wars and was officially fought between North And South Vietnam Government.
The North Vietnamese army was supported by the Soviet Union and other communist allies and the South Vietnamese army was supported by the United States, and other anti-communist allies.
John F. KennedyJohn F. Kennedy served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963.
Kennedy served at the height of the Cold War, and much of his presidency focused on managing relations with the Soviet Union.
A member of the Democratic Party, Kennedy represented the state of Massachusetts in the United States House of Representatives and the United States Senate prior to becoming president.
Lyndon B. JohnsonLyndon B. Johnson served as the 36th President of the United States from 1963 to 1969, assuming the office after serving as the 37th Vice President of the United States from 1961 to 1963.
A Democrat from Texas, he also served as a United States Representative and as the Majority Leader in the United States Senate.
Johnson is one of only four people who has served in all four federal elected positions.
Richard NixonRichard M. Nixon was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 until 1974, when he resigned from office, the only U.S. president to do so.
He had previously served as the 36th Vice President of the United States from 1953 to 1961, and prior to that as a U.S. Representative and also Senator from California.
Nixon was born in Yorba Linda, California. After completing his undergraduate studies at Whittier College, he graduated from Duke University School of Law in 1937.