The West

Timeline created by angel smith
In History
  • Steam power travel

    American steamship inventor Robert Fulton (1765-1815) believed he had perfected a mechanism that would allow humankind to increase its productivity and create a better material life for all. He could not have imagined, however, that steamboats like his Clermont would evolve into the world's first intercontinental weapon and an instrument of Western imperialism.
  • Laissez Faire

    In the late 1800s, many Americans enthusiastically embraced Spencer's "Social Darwinism" to justify laissez-faire, or unrestricted, capitalism. ... He argued for laissez-faire capitalism, an economic system that allows businesses to operate with little government interference.
  • trust

    The term trust is often used in a historical sense to refer to monopolies or near-monopolies in the United States during the Second Industrial Revolution in the 19th century and early 20th century
  • temperance

    Norway and Sweden saw movements rise in the 1830s. In the United States, a pledge of abstinence had been promulgated by various preachers, notably John Bartholomew Gough, at the beginning of the 1800s. Temperance associations were established in New York (1808) and Massachusetts (1813).
  • YMCA

    The Young Men's Christian Association was organized in 1852 to help develop the social, spiritual, social and physical well-being of young men. A merchant philanthropist, William E. Dodge, Jr.; financier J. P. Morgan; and a young immigrant, Robert Ross McBurney, were among the founders.
  • bessemer process

    Sir Henry Bessemer, (born Jan. 19, 1813, Charlton, Hertfordshire, Eng.—died March 15, 1898, London), inventor and engineer who developed the first process for manufacturing steel inexpensively (1856), leading to the development of the Bessemer converter. He was knighted in 1879.
  • Native Americans

    1800s was the migration of miners and settlers onto the Great Plains. Treaties tried to solve issues over what the settlers and miners were allowed to access. These issues did not remain resolved. In 1858, Plains Indians met miners heading towards Colorado in search of gold. The requirement for Native Americans to remain on "areas of federal land set aside for American Indians", or reservations, soon followed. These Indians could no longer follow buffalo, changing there lives greatly.
  • Morill Land Grant College Act

    An Act donating Public Lands to the several States and Territories which may provide Colleges for the Benefit of Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts. The Morrill Land-Grant Acts are United States statutes that allowed for the creation of land-grant colleges in U.S. states using the proceeds of federal land sales.
  • Union Pacific

    In 1862, the Pacific Railroad Act chartered the Central Pacific and the Union Pacific Railroad Companies, and tasked them with building a transcontinental railroad that would link the United States from east to west. Over the next seven years, the two companies would race toward each other from Sacramento, California on the one side and Omaha, Nebraska on the other, struggling against great risks before they met at Promontory, Utah, on May 10, 1869.
  • Central Pacific

    Planned by Theodore Judah, the Central Pacific Railroad was authorized by Congress in 1862. It was financed and built through "The Big Four" (who called themselves "The Associates"): Sacramento, California businessmen Leland Stanford, Collis Huntington, Charles Crocker, and Mark Hopkins.
  • Homestead Act

    Signed into law in May 1862, the Homestead Act opened up settlement in the western United States, allowing any American, including freed slaves, to put in a claim for up to 160 free acres of federal land. By the end of the Civil War, 15,000 homestead claims had been established, and more followed in the postwar years. Eventually, 1.6 million individual claims would be approved; nearly ten percent of all government held property for a total of 420,000 square miles of territory.
  • standard oil trust

    The Standard Oil Trust was formed in 1863 by John D. Rockefeller. He built up the company through 1868 to become the largest oil refinery firm in the world. In 1870, the company was renamed Standard Oil Company, after which Rockefeller decided to buy up all the other competition and form them into one large company.
  • William Randolph Hearst

    William Randolph Hearst is best known for publishing the largest chain of American newspapers in the late 19th century, and particularly for sensational "yellow journalism."
  • Homestead Act

    The completion of the railroads to the West following the Civil War opened up vast areas of the region to settlement and economic development. White settlers from the East poured across the Mississippi to mine, farm, and ranch. African-American settlers also came West from the Deep South, convinced by promoters of all-black Western towns that prosperity could be found there. Chinese railroad workers further added to the diversity of the region's population.
  • john rockerfeller

    Rockefeller was an American oil industry business magnate, industrialist, and philanthropist.Rockefeller went into a business partnership with Maurice B. Clark and his brothers at 20. After buying them out, he and his brother William founded Rockefeller & Andrews with Samuel Andrews. Instead of drilling for oil, they concentrated on oil refining. In 1867, Henry Flagler entered the partnership. The Rockefeller, Andrews & Flagler company grew by taking-over local refineries.
  • promontory point, utah

    The golden spike (also known as The Last Spike) is the ceremonial final spike driven by Leland Stanford to join the rails of the First Transcontinental Railroad across the United States connecting the Central Pacific and Union Pacific railroads on May 10, 1869, at Promontory Summit, Utah Territory.
  • telephone

    Alexander Graham Bell was awarded the first U.S. patent for the invention of the telephone in 1876. Elisha Gray, 1876, designed a telephone using a water microphone in Highland Park, Illinois. ... Thomas Edison invented the carbon microphone which produced a strong telephone signal.
  • cornelius vanderbilt

    Shipping and railroad tycoon Cornelius Vanderbilt (1794-1877) was a self-made multi-millionaire who became one of the wealthiest Americans of the 19th century. As a boy, he worked with his father, who operated a boat that ferried cargo between Staten Island, New York, where they lived, and Manhattan. After working as a steamship captain, Vanderbilt went into business for himself in the late 1820s, and eventually became one of the country’s largest steamship operators.
  • African Americans

    Exodusters was a name given to African Americans who migrated from states along the Mississippi River to Kansas in the late nineteenth century, as part of the Exoduster Movement or Exodus of 1879. It was the first general migration of black people following the Civil War.
  • tenement

    In the 19th century, more and more people began crowding into America’s cities. In New York City–where the population doubled every decade from 1800 to 1880–buildings that had once been single-family dwellings were increasingly divided into multiple living spaces to accommodate this growing population. Known as tenements and were all too often cramped, poorly lit and lacked indoor plumbing and proper ventilation. By 1900, some 2.3 million people were living in tenement housing.
  • assassination of president garfield

    When Guiteau, a lawyer with a history of mental illness, shot Garfield in the back on July 2, 1881, he thought God had told him to shoot the president. He also thought he had killed the president, but it wasn't the bullet that did the job.
  • Chinese Exclusion Act

    The Chinese Exclusion Act was a United States federal law signed by President Chester A. Arthur on May 6, 1882, prohibiting all immigration of Chinese laborers.
  • pendleton act

    Following the assassination of President James A. Garfield by a disgruntled job seeker, Congress passed the Pendleton Act in January of 1883. ... The Pendleton Act provided that Federal Government jobs be awarded on the basis of merit and that Government employees be selected through competitive exams.
  • coca cola

    John Pemberton. In 1886, Coca-Cola was invented by a pharmacist named John Pemberton, otherwise known as "Doc." He fought in the Civil War, and at the end of the war he decided he wanted to invent something that would bring him commercial success.
  • Dawes Severalty Act

    The Dawes Act of 1887 (also known as the General Allotment Act or the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887), adopted by Congress in 1887, authorized the President of the United States to survey American Indian tribal land and divide it into allotments for individual Indians.
  • kodak camera

    This Original Kodak camera, introduced by George Eastman, placed the power of photography in the hands of anyone who could press a button. ... George Eastman invented flexible roll film and in 1888 introduced the Kodak camera shown to use this film.
  • andrew carnegie

    Andrew Carnegie was a Scottish-American industrialist, business magnate, and philanthropist. Carnegie led the expansion of the American steel industry in the late 19th century and is often identified as one of the richest people.
  • hull houses

    Hull House was a settlement house in the United States that was co-founded in 1889 by Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr. Located on the Near West Side of Chicago, Illinois, Hull House (named after the home's first owner Charles Jerald Hull) opened to recently arrived European immigrants.
  • sherman Anti trust Act

    The Sherman Antitrust Act is a landmark federal statute in the history of United States antitrust law passed by Congress in 1890 under the presidency of Benjamin Harrison.
  • city beautiful movement

    The City Beautiful Movement was a reform philosophy of North American architecture and urban planning that flourished during the 1890s and 1900s with the intent of introducing beautification and monumental grandeur in cities. The movement promoted beauty not only for its own sake, but also to create moral and civic virtue among urban populations.[1] Advocates of the philosophy believed that such beautification could promote a harmonious social order that would increase the quality of life
  • silver act

    it increased the amount of silver the government was required to purchase on a recurrent monthly basis The Sherman Silver Purchase Act had been passed in response to the growing complaints of farmers' and miners' interests. Farmers had immense debts that could not be paid off, and they urged the government to pass the Sherman Silver Purchase Act in order to boost the economy and cause inflation,Mining companies, meanwhile, had extracted vast quantities of silver from western mines.
  • vertical integration

    carnrgie allowed for his company to control all phases of production
  • worlds columbian exposition 1893

    The World’s Columbian Exposition of 1893 was the first world’s fair held in Chicago. Carving out some 600 acres of Frederick Law Olmsted’s Jackson Park, the exposition was a major milestone. Congress awarded Chicago the opportunity to host the fair over the other candidate cities of New York, Washington D.C. and St. Louis, Missouri.people passed through the grounds each day during its six-month run, making it larger than all of the U.S. world’s fairs that preceded it.
  • depression of 1893

    The Panic of 1893 was a serious economic depression in the United States that began in that year.[1] Similar to the Panic of 1873, this panic was marked by the collapse of railroad overbuilding and shaky railroad financing which set off a series of bank failures.
  • Henry Cabot Lodge

    Henry Cabot Lodge, (born May 12, 1850, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.—died November 9, 1924, Cambridge, Massachusetts), Republican U.S. senator for more than 31 years (1893–1924); he led the successful congressional opposition to his country's participation in the League of Nations following World War I.
  • coxey's army

    Coxey's Army was a protest march by unemployed workers from the United States, led by Ohio businessman Jacob Coxey. They marched on Washington D.C. in 1894, the second year of a four-year economic depression that was the worst in United States history to that time.
  • election of 1896

    The Outcome and Significance of the Presidential Election of 1896. Voter turnout was unprecedented, at around eighty percent of the electorate. Bryan carried most states of the predominately rural South and the mountain West (especially the silver states of the Rocky Mountains).
  • Yellow Journalism

    journalism that is based upon sensationalism and crude exaggeration.
  • trustbusters

    Trust-busting is a government activities designed to break up trusts or monopolies. Theodore Roosevelt is the U.S. president most associated with dissolving trusts, but his chosen successor, William Howard Taft, actually began the most of the anti-trust proceedings.
  • Election of 1900

    McKinley wins again with Teddy Roosevelt as VP
  • teddy rosevelt

    Theodore Roosevelt Jr. October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919) was an American statesman and writer who served as the 26th President of the United States from 1901 to 1909. ... Upon entering politics, he became the leader of the reform faction of Republicans in New York's state legislature. The Progressive Party was a third party in the United States formed in 1912 by former President Theodore Roosevelt incumbent President William Howard Taft.
  • northern securities trust

    The Northern Securities Company was a short-lived American railroad trust formed in 1901 by E. H. Harriman, James J. Hill, J.P. Morgan and their associates.
  • square deal

    The Square Deal was Theodore Roosevelt's domestic policy based on three basic ideas: protection of the consumer, control of large corporations, and conservation of natural resources.
  • Teddy Roosevelt

    During his political career, Theodore Roosevelt and imperialism were closely linked. With imperialism as a rather new concept in the U.S., and the need to establish the country as a world power, it's no surprise that Teddy – renowned for being unabashedly progressive in both political and social arenas – led the charge.
  • big stick policy

    U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt's foreign policy: "speak softly, and carry a big stick." supported by the unspoken threat of a powerful military, President Roosevelt used Big Stick diplomacy in many foreign policy situations.
  • teddy bear

    In 1902, President Roosevelt participated in a bear-hunting trip in Mississippi. While hunting, Roosevelt declared the behavior of the other hunters “unsportsmanlike" after he refused to kill a bear they had captured. ... With permission from Roosevelt, Michtom named the bears “Teddy bears." They were an instant success.
  • Russo-Japanese War

    The Russo–Japanese War was fought between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over rival imperial ambitions in Manchuria and Korea. The major theatres of operations were the Liaodong Peninsula and Mukden in Southern Manchuria and the seas around Korea, Japan and the Yellow Sea.
  • Schlieffen Plan

    Field Marshal Alfred von Schlieffen, the Chief of the Imperial Army German General Staff from 1891 to 1906, devised in 1905 and 1906 a deployment plan for a war-winning offensive, in a one-front war against the French Third Republic.Schlieffen could contemplate leaving only a small force in the east and in 1905, wrote the memorandum War against France which was taken up by his successor, Moltke (the Younger) and became the concept of the main German war plan from 1906–1914.
  • great white fleet

    The Great White Fleet was the popular nickname for the powerful United States Navy battle fleet that completed a journey around the globe from 16 December 1907, to 22 February 1909, by order of United States President Theodore Roosevelt. Its mission was to make friendly courtesy visits to numerous countries, while displaying America's new naval power to the world.
  • new nationalism

    political philosophy of Theodore Roosevelt, an espousal of active federal intervention to promote social justice and the economic welfare of the underprivileged; its precepts were strongly influenced by Herbert Croly's The Promise of American Life (1910).
  • mexican revolution

    The Mexican Revolution started in 1910, when liberals and intellectuals began to challenge the regime of dictator Porfirio Díaz, who had been in power since 1877, a term of 34 years called El Porfiriato, violating the principles and ideals of the Mexican Constitution of 1857.
  • election of 1912

    Some Republicans, unhappy with William Howard Taft, split with the Republican Party and created the Progressive Party in 1912. Former president Theodore 'Teddy' Roosevelt ran as the Progressive Party candidate, but was unsuccessful in obtaining a presidential win.
  • bull moose party

    True to Roosevelt's progressive beliefs, the platform of the party called for major reforms including women's suffrage, social welfare assistance for women and children, farm relief, revisions in banking, health insurance in industries, and worker's compensation. The Progressive Party of 1912 was an American third party. It was formed by former President Theodore Roosevelt after he lost the presidential nomination of the Republican Party to his former President William Howard Taft
  • new freedom

    New Freedom was a collection of speeches Woodrow Wilson made during his presidential campaign of 1912. The speeches promised significant reforms for greater economic opportunity for all, while ensuring the tradition of limited government.
  • Archduke Franz Ferdinand

    The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir presumptive to the throne of Austria-Hungary, and his wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, happened on 28 June 1914 in Sarajevo. They were shot dead by Gavrilo Princip.
  • Gavrilo Princip

    Gavrilo Princip (Serbian Cyrillic: Гаврило Принцип, pronounced [ɡǎʋrilo prǐntsip]; 25 July [O.S. 13 July] 1894[1] – 28 April 1918) was a Bosnian Serb member of Young Bosnia, a Yugoslavist organization seeking an end to Austro-Hungarian rule in Bosnia and Herzegovina. He assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife, Sophie, in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914, continuing a chain of events that would lead to outbreak of the First World War.
  • u-Boats

    The U-boat Campaign from 1914 to 1918 was the World War I naval campaign fought by German U-boats against the trade routes of the Allies. It took place largely in the seas around the British Isles and in the Mediterranean.
  • Universal Negro Improvement Association

    The Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League is a black nationalist fraternal organization founded in 1914 by Marcus Mosiah Garvey. represent the largest mass movement in African-American history. Proclaiming a black nationalist "Back to Africa" message, Garvey and the UNIA established 700 branches in thirty-eight states by the early 1920s.
  • great migration

    The Great Migration was the movement of 6 million African Americans to Northern, Western, and Midwestern states from 1916 to 1970. African Americans left the South because of racism, persecution, and earning 1/3 the wages of a white in a factory. Most cities experienced humongous percentages of blacks (Detroit-611%, Philadelphia-500%, Chicago-144%, and New York {Most heavily Harlem}-66%). After WWI, most whites working in factories went overseas to fight
  • Sussex Pledge

    The Sussex Pledge was a promise made by Germany to the United States in 1916, during World War I before the latter entered the war. Early in 1915, Germany had instituted a policy of unrestricted submarine warfare, allowing armed merchant ships, but not passenger ships, to be torpedoed without warning.
  • 21st Amendment

    The Twenty-first Amendment to the United States Constitution repealed the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which had mandated nationwide Prohibition on alcohol on January 16, 1919. The Twenty-first Amendment was ratified on December 5, 1933.
  • Weimar Republic

    The Weimar Republic was the democratic government founded in Germany following Kaiser Wilhelm II's abdication near the end of War World I. It continued in name until 1945, but actually ended with Hitler's seizure of dictatorial powers in 1933.
  • National Socialist-German Workers’ Party (NAZI)

    Founded in 1919 as the German Workers’ Party, the group promoted German pride and anti-Semitism, and expressed dissatisfaction with the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, the 1919 peace settlement that ended World War I (1914-1918) and required Germany to make numerous concessions and reparations. Hitler joined the party the year it was founded and became its leader in 1921. In 1933, he became chancellor of Germany and his Nazi government soon assumed dictatorial powers.
  • 19th Amendment

    The 19th Amendment (1920) to the Constitution of the United States provides men and women with equal voting rights. The amendment states that the right of citizens to vote "shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex."
  • Pancho Villa

    Francisco "Pancho" Villa was a Mexican Revolutionary general and one of the most prominent figures of the Mexican Revolution. After his death, he was excluded from the pantheon of revolutionary heroes until the Sonoran generals Obregón and Calles, whom he battled during the Revolution, were gone from the political stage. Villa's exclusion from the official narrative of the Revolution might have contributed to his continued posthumous popular acclaim.
  • American Indian Citizenship Act

    On June 2, 1924, Congress granted United States citizenship to Native Americans born in the United States. But even after the Indian Citizenship Act passed, some Native Americans weren't allowed to vote because the right to vote was governed by state law
  • Spirit of St. Louis

    The Spirit of St. Louis is the custom-built, single engine, single-seat, high wing monoplane that was flown solo by Charles Lindbergh on May 20 – 21, 1927, on the first solo nonstop transatlantic flight from Long Island, New York, to Paris, France, for which Lindbergh won the $25,000
  • Herbert Hoover

    Herbert Hoover was the 31st president of the United States (1929–1933), whose term was notably marked by the stock market crash of 1929 and the beginnings of the Great Depression.
  • Mexican Repatriation

    The Mexican Repatriation was a mass deportation of Mexicans and Mexican-Americans from the United States between 1929 and 1936. Estimates of how many were repatriated range from 500,000 to 2,000,000, of whom perhaps 60% were US citizens by birth.
  • Thomas Shipp

    On a hot August night in 1930 a crowd gathered in front of an Indiana jail — men, women, and children shouting and jeering, demanding that the sheriff release his three prisoners. Three African-American teenagers: Tom Shipp, Abe Smith, and James Cameron — huddled inside their cells, charged with the murder of a white man and the rape of white woman.
  • Hoovervilles

    During the Great Depression shantytowns appeared across the U.S. as unemployed people were evicted from their homes. As the Depression worsened, many looked to the federal government for assistance. When the government failed to provide relief, President Hoover was blamed for the intolerable economic and social conditions, and the shantytowns that cropped up across the nation, primarily on the outskirts of major cities, became known as Hoovervilles.
  • The Dust Bowl

    The Dust Bowl refers to the drought-stricken Southern Plains region of the United States, which suffered severe dust storms during a dry period in the 1930s. As high winds and choking dust swept the region from Texas to Nebraska, people and livestock were killed and crops failed across the entire region. The Dust Bowl intensified the crushing economic impacts of the Great Depression and drove many farming families on a desperate migration in search of work and better living conditions.
  • Election of 1932

    The United States presidential election of 1932 was the thirty-seventh quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 8, 1932. The election took place against the backdrop of the Great Depression. Incumbent Republican President Herbert Hoover was defeated in a landslide by Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt, the Governor of New York. The election marked the effective end of the Fourth Party System, which had been dominated by Republicans.
  • The New Deal

    When President Franklin Roosevelt took office in 1933, he acted swiftly to try and stabilize the economy and provide jobs and relief to those who were suffering. Over the next eight years, the government instituted a series of experimental projects and programs, known collectively as the New Deal, that aimed to restore some measure of dignity and prosperity to many More than that, Roosevelt’s New Deal permanently changed the federal government’s relationship to the U.S. populace.
  • New Deal Coalition

    The New Deal coalition was the alignment of interest groups and voting blocs in the United States that supported the New Deal and voted for Democratic presidential candidates from 1932 until the late 1960s.
  • Glass-Stegall Act

    The Glass–Steagall legislation describes four provisions of the U.S. Banking Act of 1933 separating commercial and investment banking. The article 1933 Banking Act describes the entire law, including the legislative history of the provisions covered here.
  • 20th Amendment

    Passed by Congress March 2, 1932. Ratified January 23, 1933. The 20th Amendment changed a portion of Article I, Section 4, and a portion of the 12th Amendment.
  • Fair Labor Standards Act

    Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) of 1938. The Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) establishes minimum wage, overtime pay, recordkeeping, and youth employment standards affecting full-time and part-time workers in the private sector and in Federal, State, and local governments.
  • Annexation of Austria

    On March 12, 1938, German troops march into Austria to annex the German-speaking nation for the Third Reich. In early 1938, Austrian Nazis conspired for the second time in four years to seize the Austrian government by force and unite their nation with Nazi Germany.
  • German-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact

    On August 23, 1939–shortly before World War II (1939-45) broke out in Europe–enemies Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union surprised the world by signing the German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact, in which the two countries agreed to take no military action against each other for the next 10 years. With Europe on the brink of another major war, Soviet leader Joseph Stalin viewed the pact as a way to keep his nation on peaceful terms with Germany, giving him time to build up the Soviet military.
  • Treaty of Paris (1898)

    The Treaty of Paris of 1898 was an agreement made in 1898 that involved Spain relinquishing nearly all of the remaining Spanish Empire, especially Cuba, and ceding Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines to the United States.
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    transforming the west

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    progressive era

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    World war 1

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    world war 2