Early Modern England: women writers and their contexts

Timeline created by ENGL301
  • 2,900 BCE

    Oldest 'Recipe' for Beer

    Oldest 'Recipe' for Beer
    An archaeological dig in 2016 revealed a Chinese distillery system dating back to 3400-2900 B.C.E. The dig made headlines for having discovered the 'oldest possible recipe for beer', though a recipe was not actually found- the beer was. After doing a chemical analysis on the beer they found, archaeologists produced a list of contents and an informed guess at how the beer would have been produced. the instance is an interesting one to consider when asking 'what is a recipe?' [Janie] n.pr/2suLUhD
  • 1,007 BCE

    Witch of Endor is first female medium

    Witch of Endor is first female medium
    The earliest account of mediumship is the Witch of Endor from the 1st book of Samuel. After he dies, Saul seeks out help from God for advice on how to deal with forces threatening his borders. He sought out spiritual help & found a woman in Endor who claimed she could see Samuel's ghost rising from the dead who berated Saul for disobeying God & predicts Saul's downfall, that he would die along with his army in battle. The next day his army is defeated, and a terrified Saul commits suicide.
  • -431 BCE

    Medea is First Produced

    Medea is First Produced
    Medea is an Ancient Greek play by Euripides that features a witch who kills her children and her husband's new wife to gain vengeance. This play shows an instance of a character stereotype common to Ancient Greek myth: the conniving woman. This myth contains a lot of the same staples as the early modern accounts of witches: a conniving woman not favored in society (Medea was an immigrant), and harm coming to children at the hands of a witch. [Maggie]
  • 150

    Ptolemy's World Map

    Ptolemy's World Map
    In the year 150 AD, Claudius Ptolemy was the first to use geometry to make a map of the world, featured in his book "Geographica". This book wasn't well known until 1407, when it was translated from Greek to Latin. The book challenged traditional processes of mapmaking, for up until this point cartographers used proportions of countries to create maps, not mathematical calculations. Ultimately, Ptolemy's calculations were incorrect, but his process changed cartography forever.
    Anna Witwer
  • 150

    Ptolemy's World Map Continued

    Ptolemy's World Map Continued
    Ptolemy (full name Claudius Ptolemaeus) was born circa 100 CE. Very little is known about his life, except for what can be inferred from his writings. He was an astronomer, mathematician, and geographer whose contributions impacted subjects ranging from solar theory, trigonometry, and modern cartography. Due to these significant contributions, Ptolemy is considered one of the most influential Greek astronomers and geographers of his time. (Anna)
  • 1173

    (Lauren) Eleanor of Aquitaine takes part in a plot against her husband, King Henry II

    (Lauren) Eleanor of Aquitaine takes part in a plot against her husband, King Henry II
    Eleanor of Aquitaine was the most powerful woman of her time. In her lifetime, she would become both a Queen of France and a Queen of England. During her second marriage, to King Henry II, their oldest son lead a plot to kill Henry, and Eleanor helped him. The plot would fail, and Henry then took Eleanor prisoner. However, on Henry's death, their younger son Richard ascended to the throne and granted Eleanor significant political power. Eleanor acted as vice regent while Richard lead a crusade.
  • 1300

    First Known Verbatim Occurrence of 'recipe'

    First Known Verbatim Occurrence of 'recipe'
    The word then was largely a medical verb taken from the Latin recipere which meant to take or to receive. In 1400 it is known to have occurred as a verb for creating mortar, which shows an interesting origin of meaning, and by the 1500s was being regularly applied to food perhaps having evolved as a verb for combining ingredients to a noun for the instructions of combination. [Janie] All info per the Oxford English Dictionary.
  • 1348

    The Plague First Reaches Europe

    The Plague First Reaches Europe
    The plague first reached England during the summer of 1348. The deadly disease came to London that September, then quickly spread throughout England and the rest of Europe through 1348 and 1349. Between 1348-1350, about 30-45% of the population died from the plague. The spread of the disease slowed for a time, but then resurfaced later in the 15th and 16th centuries. The disease spread rapidly and became one of the deadliest and most devastating epidemics throughout history.
    Anna Witwer
  • 1393

    Le Ménagier de Paris (The Householder of Paris) Published

    Le Ménagier de Paris (The Householder of Paris) Published
    Le Ménagier de Paris (The Householder of Paris) was published in 1393, and provided a comprehensive cookbook and guide for women, on how to act and behave as a "proper" wive. It was written from the perspective of a fictional elderly husband speaking to his much younger wife. This was the among the earliest examples of such literature, and provided a recipe book, a living guide, and a book of cures for ailments and other forms of medicine. This style of book only increased in popularity.
  • May 30, 1431

    Joan of Arc is burned at the stake

    Joan of Arc is burned at the stake
    Joan of Arc, a saint and famous military leader, was burned at the stake when she was 19 years old. She was burnt a second time by the Cardinal of Winchester, and because her organs still survived, she was burnt a third time. It is believed that she was burnt as a witch, and the femur of a cat was found amongst her bones and ashes (although historians have chalked this up to a passing cat as the femur was not burnt). Her ashes were not discovered until 1867 in the loft of a Paris apothecary.
  • 1487

    "Malleus Maleficarum" published

    "Malleus Maleficarum" published
    Catholic clergymen and theology professors Heinrich Kramer and Jacob Sprenger wrote what would later be the European fundamental witch hunters guide. It was the best manual written at the time and widely popular due to its distribution after the Gutenberg Press. In 1481 the two wrote Pope Innocent VIII about how witchcraft wasn't being taken seriously enough and issued a papal bill which threatened excommunication to anyone who interfered with any inquisitions the monks carried out. - Hannah
  • Apr 21, 1509

    Henry VIII becomes King

    Henry VIII becomes King
    Henry VIII succeeds his father, Henry VII, on April 21, 1509. He was coronated, along with his new wife Catherine of Aragon on June 23, 1509. He reigned until his death at the age of 55.
  • Oct 31, 1517

    Martin Luther's Wittenberg Theses- Kelsey Thomas

    Martin Luther's Wittenberg Theses-               Kelsey Thomas
    Martin Luther's 95 Theses, or Disputation on the Power of Indulgences, regarded perceived abuse of power by the clergy in selling plenary indulgences believed to reduce punishment in Purgatory for sins committed. These Theses marked the beginning of the Protestant Reformation in Europe.
  • 1532

    Henry VIII Pursues Anne Boleyn, attempts to annul his first marriage

    Henry VIII Pursues Anne Boleyn, attempts to annul his first marriage
    This movement towards divorce was the begging of the separation between the Roman Catholic Church and England. Anne Boleyn has been called "the most influential and important queen consort England has ever had" in her martyrdom as she provided the occasion for Henry VIII to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon and declare the English church's independence from Rome. This marriage and eventful beheading helped to build the case of the English Revoluation and, later, Anne Askew's pursuit. JV
  • 1533

    Henry VIII Divorces Catherine of Aragon

    Henry VIII Divorces Catherine of Aragon
    King Henry VIII divorced his first wife and instead married Anne Boleyn.
  • 1534

    Henry VIII Breaks with Rome, Declared Head of Church of England

    Henry VIII Breaks with Rome, Declared Head of Church of England
    Due to his divorce to Catherine of Aragon, Henry VIII was excommunicated by the Pope and accordingly broke away from the Roman Catholic Church, the Church of England was founded in response. This lead to England becoming a protestant country, a source of conflict between England and many other countries for years to come.
  • 1540

    (Lauren) Elisabeth Pickering takes over her husband's printing business

    (Lauren) Elisabeth Pickering takes over her husband's printing business
    In 1540, when her husband Robert Redman died, Elisabeth Pickering took over his printing business. In the nine months following his death, she printed 13 law books in his press. She printed 11 of these under her maiden name, which included an edition of the Magna Carta. She is thought to be the first English woman to print under her maiden name, and is the first English woman whose works have survived to today. Her edition of the Magna Carta is the second to ever have been printed in English.
  • May 12, 1543

    Henry VIII Passed an Act Against Low Ranking Citizens from reading the bible

    Henry VIII Passed an Act Against Low Ranking Citizens from reading the bible
    After this was passed, Askew was determined to share her strong Protestant views, as she memorized the scriptures & spread her knowledge with those who were deprived from reading the Bible themselves. Thomas Kyme, her husband that was a traditional conservative, would not cope with his outspoken wife, a woman who even refused to take his name, so, as advised by his local priests, he kicked her out of the family home. Anne simply moved in with her brother Francis & petitioned for divorce. (JVLS)
  • Jun 19, 1546

    Anne Askew Tortured During Second Examination

    Anne Askew Tortured During Second Examination
    When Anne Askew didn’t confess during her second examination, she was tortured. During each step of the torturing process, they asked her to name fellow Protestants, hoping she’d include Queen Catherine, but she would not say. She was stripped down to her shift and had her ankles and wrists fastened to a rack on a wheel. She continued to stay silent as the wheel turned and stretched her, causing her shoulders, hips, elbows, and knees to dislocate. She still did not give names.
  • Jul 16, 1546

    Anne Askew Burnt at Smithfield

    Anne Askew Burnt at Smithfield
    Askew was an early female poet and writer who was burnt at stake for her Protestant beliefs under Henry VIII's rule.
  • 1547

    (Lauren) Thomas Seymour's relationship with Elizabeth I

    (Lauren) Thomas Seymour's relationship with Elizabeth I
    When Elizabeth I was fourteen, Thomas Seymour moved to Chelsea Manor with Jane Seymour, where Elizabeth lived. Thomas and Elizabeth grew close and spent an immense amount of time together, which was seen as scandalous. When Thomas was charged with treason, details of their relationship were released and sensationalized in the press, and their relationship implicated Elizabeth and her maidens in his case. After this, Elizabeth kept her private life minimal and was reluctant to show vulnerability.
  • Jan 28, 1547

    Edward VI becomes King

    Edward VI becomes King
    Edward VI succeeds his father, Henry VIII, on January 28, 1547 at the age of nine. He was coronated on February 20, 1547. He reigned until his death at the age of fifteen.
  • Jul 6, 1553

    Mary I becomes Queen

    Mary I becomes Queen
    Mary I succeeds his brother, Edward VI, on July 6, 1553. She was coronated on October 1, 1553. She reigned until her death at the age of 42.
  • Mar 18, 1554

    Elizabeth I Imprisoned in Tower of London

    Elizabeth I Imprisoned in Tower of London
    Queen Mary I had her half-sister, Elizabeth I, imprisoned in the Tower of London for her supposed involvement in the Wyatt Rebellion, which sought to replace Mary with Elizabeth on the throne. After a few months in the Tower, where her mother, Anne Boleyn, had been imprisoned and executed, Elizabeth was moved to royal residence at Woodstock, where she remained a prisoner. This imprisonment makes her procession from the Tower to Westminster for her coronation even more significant. [Maggie]
  • 1558

    The Act of Supremacy

    The Act of Supremacy
    One of Elizabeth I's biggest concerns upon ascending the throne was the establishment of the Church of England. Her father had established a church independent of Rome, but Mary had re-enstated Catholicism during her reign. With the Act of Supremacy, Elizabeth was named Supreme Governor of the church. This act would last until 1969 with parts still working until 2010. - Hannah
  • Nov 17, 1558

    Elizabeth I becomes Queen

    Elizabeth I becomes Queen
    Elizabeth I succeeds her sister, Mary I, on November 17, 1558. She was coronated on January 15, 1559. She reigned until her death at the age of 69.
  • 1560

    Amy Dudley Found Dead

    Amy Dudley Found Dead
    Robert Dudley was a potential love interest of Queen Elizabeth I, friends since childhood, once Elizabeth became Queen Dudley rushed to her side and was appointed master of the Horse. There was constant speculation on the two's romantic involvement. However, his wife was found with a broken neck, either due to suicide or murder, Dudley was never charged with a crime but he was never able to continue pursuing Elizabeth due to the speculation around his name.
  • Oct 27, 1561

    Mary Sidney is Born

    Mary Sidney is Born
    Mary Sidney was born in the Tickenhill Palace in Worcestershire on October 27th, 1561. During her life she was mentored by her brother, Phillip Sidney who was a famous poet. There is a conspiracy theory surrounding Mary that because of her being a woman she was not able to write plays for the public theater. This and other facts have pushed some to believe that she has true authorship over Shakespeare's plays. - Jen Schneider
  • 1567

    Bess of Hardwick Fourth Marriage- Kelsey Thomas

    Bess of Hardwick Fourth Marriage-         Kelsey Thomas
    Bess of Hardwick is known for her attributed works as well as four marriages which improved her wealth, property, and station. In life she rose to level of Countess of Shrewsbury. She was acquainted with Queen Elizabeth I in her third marriage to Captain of the Guard, who also guarded/held Mary, Queen of Scots under arrest at their home in 1568. Mary became companion to Bess and attributed as negative influence over their marriage and its ending. She has written 200+ letters from 1550s-1608.
  • 1567

    "Red Lion" Opens

    "Red Lion" Opens
    Often cited as the first playhouse to be established in London, the Red Lion opened in 1567. John Brayne opened the theater with idea to give traveling theater troupe a playhouse to perform out of. Although it was prepared to be commercially successful, the Red Lion closed after just one year as it did not offer much to acting companies that they couldn't get out of an inn (the typical theater house at the time). John Brayne would later go on to assist James Burbage in opening The Theater. (Ben)
  • 1571

    Ridolfi Assassination Plot

    Ridolfi Assassination Plot
    The Rudolf Plot was an assassination plot against Queen Elizabeth I, led by Roberto Ridolfi, a Catholic banker and a spy for the Pope. Imprisoned by Elizabeth, he was released due to lack of evidence. The aim was for Queen Mary of Scots to wed the Duke of Norfolk then replace Elizabeth on the English throne, returning protestantism to England. Mary was involved, however it is not the assassination plot that earned her an execution, that was the Brighton Plot. -Grace Brunner
  • 1576

    "The Theater" Opens

    "The Theater" Opens
    In 1576, James Burbage opened the first successful public playhouse in London appropriately named "The Theater." Although there are no existing photographs or blueprints of the building, written accounts describe it to be similar structure to that of the famous Globe Theater. In fact, although the playhouse was used by several acting companies, Shakespeare's personal troupe (The Chamberlain's Men) became the primary acting company to use the building in 1594. (Ben)
  • Sep 26, 1580

    Sir Francis Drake Sails Around the World

    Sir Francis Drake Sails Around the World
    After leaving from Plymouth three years prior, Sir Francis Drake completes the second ever circumnavigation of the world. This marked the first time a captain ever completed an circumnavigation while also leading the expedition the entire time.
  • Mary Queen of Scots Executed

    Mary Queen of Scots Executed
    Mary, Queen of Scots, a Catholic rival for the English throne, is executed while she is a prisoner of Elizabeth I.
  • Spanish Armada Defeated

    Spanish Armada Defeated
    Under the command of Queen Elizabeth I, Lord Charles Howard and Sir Francis Drake (a famous pirate) defeated Spain's "invincible" armada. Protestant England fought against Catholic Spain, which was trying to invade under the blessing of the Pope to bring England back to Catholicism. England's famous victory solidified the country as a world power, with Elizabeth I on the throne as a capable ruler. This is the battle that was fought and won after Elizabeth's famous speech. [Maggie]
  • The Faerie Queene is published

    The Faerie Queene is published
    Books I to III of Edmund Spenser's "The Faerie Queene" are first published in 1590. The book is an allegorical classic and one of the longest epic poems in the English language. It depicts several knights on a quest designed to test their virtues and faith in God. The poem itself is dedicated to Elizabeth I, who is represented within the poem itself as The Fairy Queene. In 1589, Spenser met the queen and in 1591 she agreed to give him a pension of fifty pounds per year. - Hannah
  • Plague Closes London Theaters

    Plague Closes London Theaters
    In 1603 and 1608 there were also closings. Close quarters in places like theaters (particularly the areas reserved for low class viewers) coupled devastatingly with concurrent hygienic practices.
  • Francis Bacon political essays published- Kelsey Thomas

    Francis Bacon political essays published-            Kelsey Thomas
    Bacon was known for philos.,sci. writing, having contributed to the sci. method, basis for modern inquiry, and empiricism. He was legal advisor to Q. Elizabeth in 1597, knighted 1603, Regent of Eng. then Lord Chancellor in 1618. He later developed sci. method w/ emphasis on proof by strict analysis, experiment., interaction. He wrote on theol., moral philos., law. He developed 6 Degrees of Separation to relate people to Q.Elizabeth by>six others. His political essays were first published works.
  • Earl Of Essex Executed

    Earl Of Essex Executed
    After a failed coup d'état against Elizabeth I, Robert Devereux was beheaded at the Tower of London
  • James I becomes King

    James I becomes King
    James I succeeds his cousin, Elizabeth I, on March 24, 1603. He was coronated on July 25, 1603. He reigned until his death at the age of 58.
  • Mary married Sir Robert Wroth

    Mary married Sir Robert Wroth
    Although the marriage was not a happy one, Wroth's favor with the king brought Lady Mary into court circles which exposed her national and international politics and a more secular point of view with these connections. Lady Mary became a close friend of Ben Jonson who dedicated "The Alchemist" to her. It has been speculated that the two were perhaps lovers at some point. She was involved in other affairs which left her in debt after her husband's death but ultimately drove her writing. (JVLS)
  • Virginia Company Expedition to New World

    Virginia Company Expedition to New World
    This commercial trading company, chartered by King James I of England, founded Jamestown, the first successful British colony in America.
  • The Death of Bess of Hardwick

    The Death of Bess of Hardwick
    Bess of Hardwick died of old age at the age of 81 on February 13, 1608. At the time of her death, Bess of Hardwick was considered to be the second wealthiest woman in England (the first being the Queen). Her tomb was placed in All Saints Church, also known as Derby Cathedral, in the UK. Bess of Hardwick had been married four times and had 8 children. {cj}
  • Lady Arbella's marriage to William Seymour

    Lady Arbella's marriage to William Seymour
    Lady Arbella was Bess of Hardwick's granddaughter. Bess of Hardwick wrote to the Queen about Lady Arbella in 1602, asking her to help her become more considerate (letter 128, Bess of Hardwick's Letters). On June 22, 1610, Lady Arbella married William Seymour in secret. This resulted in King James imprisoning them, the couple then tried to escape, and Lady Arbella got placed back in imprisonment in the Tower of London, where she died from malnourishment on September 25, 1615. {Cj}
  • The Tragedy of Mariam Published

    The Tragedy of Mariam Published
    Written by Elizabeth Tanfield Cary, The Tragedy of Mariam was published in 1613. It was the first work to be published with a female author's real name. It was never performed during Cary's lifetime and it was apparently never intended for performance. The theme of marriage seen throughout the play is sometimes thought to be a reflection of her own difficult marriage with her husband.
  • Gervase Markham publishes The English Huswife- Kelsey Thomas

    Gervase Markham publishes The English Huswife-            Kelsey Thomas
    One of Markham's famous works,The English Huswife,Containing the Inward and Outward Virtues Which Ought to Be in a Complete Woman, is 2nd volume of Countrey Contentments. The first, The Husbandmans Recreations, also published 1615, regards riding, hunting, shooting, fishing, sports. The English Huswife regards cooking, baking, entertain., prep., sewing, house maintenance. Both influenced gender roles/views on. Raised wealthy, he knew much of forestry, agric., horse breeding, wrote on husbandry.
  • Pocahontas arrives in London

    Pocahontas arrives in London
    Pocahontas, a Powhatan Indian, travels and arrives in London with her English husband. She is used as a way to advertise the Jamestown Colony in Virginia. - Jen Schneider
  • "The Schoole of The Nobel and Worthy Science of Defence" published

    "The Schoole of The Nobel and Worthy Science of Defence" published
    Aside from publishing misogynistic works, Joseph Swetnam was also know for publishing works that trained Englishmen in the proper ways of fencing via "The Schoole of the Noble and Worthy Science of Defence". There are claims that he served as the instructor for Prince Henry (brother of Charles I), but there are no accurate records to support this. The publication of Swetnam's work marks the beginning of a change, where the rules of rapier dueling in England was rapidly changing. [Ben]
  • "Ester Hath Hanged Haman" Published

    "Ester Hath Hanged Haman" Published
    By an unknown author, Swetnam's "The Arraignment of Women" is challenged in a pamphlet published in 1617. "Ester Hath Hanged Haman" comes as the second response to Swetnam's work, with Rachel Speght's being published just slightly before. Although the identity of Ester Sowernam is unknown, scholars argue that the author must have been a highly educated woman as she uses various ways of refuting Swetnam's argument (ex publishing Latin phrases). [Ben]
  • Walter Raleigh Beheaded

    Walter Raleigh Beheaded
    Walter Raleigh was an extremely influential character in English history. He was a writer, poet, explorer, and also popularized the use of tobacco. He was imprisoned in the Tower of London for treason against James I. While there he wrote "The Historie of the World" which was about the Ancient Greek and Roman empires. Raleigh was pardoned and was allowed to continue an expedition for the search of El Dorado. He violated a peace treaty with Spain and was promptly beheaded upon returning home.
  • Proclamation for the Banishment of Jesuits

    Proclamation for the Banishment of Jesuits
    Henry Cary, playwright Elizabeth Cary's protestant husband was appointed Lord Deputy of Ireland in 1622. In 1623 he became worried about the power priests seemed to hold over the Irish people and issued the Proclamation for the Banishment of Jesuits, which accused bishops of "having usurped an ecclesiastical jurisdiction in derogation of His Majesty's Imperial Crown". It ultimately proved unsuccessful and was deemed inappropriate.
  • (Lauren) Elizabeth Walker is born

    (Lauren) Elizabeth Walker is born
    Elizabeth Walker was a female pharmacist in the mid-1600s. She learned pharmacy from her father, and was particularly skilled in mixing tobacco products. She spent most of her time helping sick neighbors by distributing salves, ointments and syrups, and counseling them. Unlike most women in the medicinal field at that time, Walker did not practice midwifery. In her writings, no mention is ever made of a medical license, so she was likely one of many unlicensed medical practitioners at the time.
  • (Lauren) Doctrine of Infanticide

    (Lauren) Doctrine of Infanticide
    In 1624, England passed the Doctrine of Infanticide to curb illegitimate childrens' homicides by their mothers, who often killed out of the effects of being socially stigmatized. This problem was over exaggerated in the press because coverage of infanticide sold more papers, leading newspapers to cover crime, particularly violent crime more often and sensationally. This is where the true crime genre cemented its roots.
  • Birth of Lady Anne Fanshawe

    Birth of Lady Anne Fanshawe
    LAF was born March 25, 1625, into a royalist family, the Harrisons. After her mother's death, she took charge of her father's household at age 15. After later marrying she is said to have birthed either 14 or 24 children (depending upon source) of whom three (Fanshawe project) or five (Perdita) survived. Her manuscript recipe book provided valuable information about Early Modern Womens' involvement in day-to-day household running. Her autobiography was published after her death. [Janie]
  • Charles I becomes King

    Charles I becomes King
    Charles I succeeds his father, James I, on July 6, 1553. He was coronated on February 2, 1626. He reigned until early to mid-1642, at the onset of the First English Civil War. Ultimately, Parliament found him guilty of high treason, and Charles I was executed on January 30, 1649 at the age of 48.
  • Anne Southwell Collected Works Compiled- Kelsey Thomas

    Anne Southwell Collected Works Compiled-             Kelsey Thomas
    Southwell, with her 2nd husband, made a compilation of her works between 1626-36; a miscellany of manuscripts, elegies, songs, verse, poetry, including other authors' work and transcribed poetry, affecting views on compiled works/authors. She was primarily a religious/love poet. She became Lady Anne Southwell when her first husband was knighted. She kept the name for status after his death/her remarriage, an early feminist example of improving status by means and retaining titles independently.
  • Elizabeth Cary declares Catholicism

    Elizabeth Cary declares Catholicism
    Elizabeth Cary publicly announced her conversion to Catholicism, a decision that would ultimately shape her life. Her husband Henry Cary was a devout Protestant and appointed Lord Deputy of Ireland where he actively suppressed Irish Catholics. She was asked by King Charles I to recant and sentenced to be confined to her London home. Husbands of recusant women couldn't hold public office and Henry's career was endangered. As punishment, he cut Elizabeth off and denied her access to her children.
  • The Society of Friendship is Started in England

    The Society of Friendship is Started in England
    Henrietta Maria, Charles I’s French wife, brought the concept of Neoplatonic love from France to England and founded The Society of Friendship. The Society included Katherine Phillips, a writer and poet whose writing established a model for female writers after her. The Society members used French pseudonyms and shared writings, poetry, recipes, and more.
  • Bishops' Wars

    Bishops' Wars
    Political and military conflicts between England and Scotland. Charles I wanted The Church of Scotland to have bishops because he was an Episcopalian, but the people of Scotland were mostly presbyterian and didn't want bishops. The wars didn't yield much violence because no one was really that interested in fighting; however, the tension from the Bishops' Wars did eventually lead to a civil war.
  • Long Parliament

    Long Parliament
    From 1640 until a1660 there was an English Parliament known as the "Long Parliament" which came after the Short Parliament (only lasted 3 weeks). They made an agreement that they could not be dissolved until every member agreed to its dissolution; which didn't happen until March of 1660 after the English Civil Wars. The Parliament was originally called upon by Charles I to pass financial bills, but then none of the members agreed to its dissolution for 20 years. - Monica
  • Charles I Raises the Royal Standard

    Charles I Raises the Royal Standard
    On August 22, 1642, Charles I raised the Royal Standard at Nottingham Palace, meaning he planted an official flag, marking the outbreak of the First English Civil War. This came as a result of disputes over Parliament's Nineteen Proposals. Soon, war broke out between Charles I and his supporters, and opposing groups from all of Charles kingdoms, including individuals from England, Scotland, and Ireland. Charles surrendered to the Scots on May 5th, 1646, ending the First English Civil War. [Anna]
  • Charles I Raises the Royal Standard Continued (Anna Witwer)

    Charles I Raises the Royal Standard Continued (Anna Witwer)
    Charles I, born of royal parents, became king in 1625. His reign was filled with civil war, stemming initially from a conflict between Charles I and parliament over an Irish insurrection. Not long after the first civil war ended, another civil war began which was then preceded by a third. These wars took place between supporters of the monarchy and opposing groups in each of Charles' kingdoms. In the end, almost 200,00 people died, making this wars arguably the bloodiest in English history.
  • Anne Harrison Marries Richard Fanshawe

    Anne Harrison Marries Richard Fanshawe
    In May 1644, Anne Harrison, now known as Lady Anne Fanshawe, married her cousin Richard Fanshawe. The two had close ties to the royal family, as Richard served as secretary to the Council of War between 1639 and 1641 and was also appointed King's Remembrancer in 1641. They lived a life filled with adventures, ranging from being shipwrecked and even being imprisoned for a time. Anne wrote about their adventures in her 1676 manuscript "Memoir", which she addressed to their son Richard. [Anna]
  • Margaret Marries Royalist Commander, William Cavendish

    Margaret Marries Royalist Commander, William Cavendish
    Her marriage ultimately saved her from obscurity as well as the involvements in helping to save his estates and reputation. Margaret traveled to England in an unsuccessful bid to secure as her husband’s estates. Her inability to reappropriate her husband’s former possessions resulted in his reputation as ‘the greatest traitor to the state.’ After the Restoration, William Cavendish did not receive a court office. These events were to have a significant impact on Cavendish’s writings. (JVLS)
  • Execution of William Laud

    Execution of William Laud
    William Laud was the Archbishop of Canterbury. He was beheaded at Tower Hill in London, England on January 10, 1645. It is said that he was prisoned many times during the end of his life for being a supporter of King Charles the First. He was a huge supporter of the concept of "the Divine Right" and believed King Charles' legitimacy to rule came directly from God. The official reason for his execution is for attempting to overthrow the Protestant Religion. - Jen Schneider
  • Katherine Philips founds The Society of Friendship- Kelsey Thomas

    Katherine Philips founds The Society of Friendship-             Kelsey Thomas
    Philips, raised by Presbyt. merchant, fluent in several lang., broke ties with raised Presbyt. religion/politics, began writing in boarding school. She founded Society of Friendship, friend group to explore/discuss ideas in lit./art. Topics were French lang./cult., romance, drama, poetry, Neoplatonic love, aspired ideals for women writers. Ideals inspired wom. writing/femin., groups, approach, qualities. Ideals included virtuous, proper, chaste, loyal, questioning of nature, politics, sexuality.
  • Oliver Cromwell becomes Lord Protector

    Oliver Cromwell becomes Lord Protector
    Oliver Cromwell is named Lord Protector of England on December 16, 1653 after the English Civil Wars (1642-1651). He served as Lord Protector until his death at the age of 59.
  • Richard Cromwell becomes Lord Protector

    Richard Cromwell becomes Lord Protector
    Oliver Cromwell, self-appointed Lord Protector of England, dies and is succeeded by his son Richard. Richard and his father are both the only commoners to hold the position of English head of state. Like his father, he acts as though he is a monarch. By attempting to mediate between the army and society, religious tensions rise, Parliament dissolves, and the army threatens Richard. Richard resigns after only 9 months and Charles II is asked to return from exile and reclaim the throne as king.
  • Robert Hooke Discovers Law of Elasticity

    Robert Hooke Discovers Law of Elasticity
    Robert Hooke developed the law of elasticity, which states that the stretching of a solid body is proportional to the force applied to it. In 1662, Hooke was appointed curator of experiments to the Royal Society of London and would continue to make great strides in a variety scientific fields. He was one of the first to build a Gregorian reflecting telescope and his studies of microscopic fossils led him to become one of the first proponents of a theory of evolution. -Anna
  • Charles II becomes King

    Charles II becomes King
    Charles II is received back in England on May 29, 1660 after the death of Oliver Cromwell and the collapse of the Protectorate. He was coronated on April 23, 1661 and reigned until his death at the age of 54.
  • Margaret Hughes's First Performance

    Margaret Hughes's First Performance
    Margaret Hughes was the first woman to act on an English stage at the Vere Street Theatre. Her first performance was as Desdemona in Shakespeare's Othello on December 8th of 1660. Known for her beauty, Margaret is often thought to be involved with many men (and most notably the mistress of Prince Rupert of the Rhine).
  • Great plague in London

    Great plague in London
    From 1665-1666 the last wave of the Bubonic Plague hit London. Over 100,000 are estimated to have been killed, which amounted to a quarter of London's population at the time.
  • Second Anglo-Dutch War

    Second Anglo-Dutch War
    The Second Anglo-Dutch War lasted from March 4th, 1665 until July 31st, 1667. The primary reason for the conflict was a power struggle between the Dutch Republic and England for control of the seas, and most importantly, trade routes. As the build-up for war increased, enthusiasm for war also increased in England, this led to the attacking of Dutch ships, and large amounts of anti-dutch and pro-war propaganda. These influences greatly impacted English culture and Society. -Grace Brunner.
  • Great Fire of London

    Great Fire of London
    The fire lasted for four days and destroyed over 13,000 houses and the original St. Paul's Cathedral.
  • Blazing World Published by Margaret Cavendish

    Blazing World Published by Margaret Cavendish
    Margaret Cavendish published Blazing World which has been regarded as possibly the first work of Science Fiction (interestingly, the next work that rivals the title as the start of science fiction genre was Frankenstein by Mary Shelley in 1818.) She was involved with the sciences and it reflected in her work, challenging questions of science, philosophy and politics. She was the first women to observe experiments by the Royal Society, and the only woman for a century later due to a ban on women.
  • Birth of Mary Astell

    Birth of Mary Astell
    Mary Astell was born on November 12, 1666 to strict, middle class parents. While Astell did not grow up with a high social status, she received an education at home and quickly became a talented and witty writer. In books like "A Serious Proposal to the Ladies", Astell discussed women's education and the inequities of the "woman's sphere". These progressive writings garnered a significant following, and her legacy lives today, as she is considered to be the first British feminist. -Anna
  • Stanislaw Lubieniecki's Theatrum cometicum

    Stanislaw Lubieniecki's Theatrum cometicum
    Staninslaw Lubieniecki wrote "Theatrum Cometicum" in Amsterdam. His book is one of the first encyclopedias and atlases of comets. It is an attempt to collect every known comet in Europe up until the year 1665. He included various observer's reports and commentaries, which is similar to many of the commonplace books we have looked at. He blended astrology with biblical chronology to create an elaborate and complex timeline. [Cj]
  • Aphra Ben's first play is staged

    Aphra Ben's first play is staged
    Aphra Ben is the first paid female playwright. King Charles II recruited her as a spy during the Second Anglo-Dutch War in 1665. Her code name was Astrea, the pseudonym under which she published most of her writings. Once she returned from war, she fell into massive amounts of debt as King Charles II took his time to pay her back, if at all. She worked as a scribe to pay off her debt. Her first play was The Forc'd Marriage in 1670. She is mentioned in Virginia Woolfe's A Room of One's Own.
  • Aphra Ben's first play is staged

    Aphra Ben's first play is staged
    King Charles II recruited her as a spy in 1665 and her code name was Astrea, the pseudonym under which she published. Once she returned from war, she fell into debt and while a warrant was out for her arrest, no evidence was found that she was imprisoned. She worked as a scribe to make a living to be able to pay off her debt. Her first play was The Forc'd Marriage and was staged in 1670. She is mentioned in A Room of One's Own as being the one "who earned them the right to speak their minds."
  • Birth of Maria Kirch

    Birth of Maria Kirch
    Maria is one of the first famous female astronomers. She became known for her writings on on Saturn, Venus, and Jupiter. She began her education from her father as well as Christoph Arnold, a well-known and self taught astronomer. She continued studying astronomy with her husband. She was associated with the Berlin Academy through her husband, but ultimately was not given the same respect bc she was a woman. She was invited to Russia by Peter the Great after her husband's death... [Cj]
  • Jane Sharp's Midwifery Book Published

    Jane Sharp's Midwifery Book Published
    Jane Sharp published a book entitled "The Midwives Book: or the Whole Art of Midwifery Discovered", the book was published in London in 1671. The book provides a thorough overview of midwifery, divided into six sections, and covering topics from aiding symptoms from pregnancy, aiding with illness that may follow birth, the birth itself, conception, and so on. Very little is actually known about Sharp or her personal life, however, this publication is an example of an early female publication.
  • Julia Palmer's "Centuries" Poems

    Julia Palmer's "Centuries" Poems
    Julia Palmer composed 200 devotional poems in the years between 1671 and 1673. The poems were split into two different "centuries" that were 100 works each. The religious context of the poetry is said to show how Palmer was a nonconformist who's interpretations aligned with Presbyterian Calvinism. - Jen Schneider
  • Margaret Clark Executed

    Margaret Clark Executed
    Margaret Clark executed for arson and theft. Elizabeth Cellier was also found guilty of libel for publishing Malice Defeated.
  • Rye House Plot

    Rye House Plot
    The Rye House Plot was a planned assassination attempt on Charles II. It is claimed that James Scott (The Duke of Monmouth), Arthur Chapel (Earl of Essex) and Lord William Russell had a plan to kill the King and his successor on the way back from a horse race. Because of the King's earl departure because of the Newmarket fire, the scheme was unable to unfold. Later, all the men involved were convicted of treason. Chapel committed suicide in the Tower of London and the rest were beheaded. -Jen S
  • James II becomes King

    James II becomes King
    James II succeeds his brother, Charles II, on February 6, 1685. He was coronated on April 23, 1685. He reigned until the Glorious Revolution in 1688 and died in exile at the age of 67.
  • Tituba Moves to Salem with Samuel Parris & Family

    Tituba Moves to Salem with Samuel Parris & Family
    In November of 1689, Samuel Parris' household, including slave Tituba moved to Salem after he was appointed the new minister of Salem. Tituba was one of the first women accused of witchcraft after helping Mary Sibley bake a witch cake. She did not practice Christianity and had no real fear of hell. Her confession and testimony about others saved her from execution despite the fact that she claimed to have done witchcraft herself. She sparked further investigations and sentencing. - Hannah
  • William III and Mary II become Joint-Sovereigns

    William III and Mary II become Joint-Sovereigns
    William III and Mary II depose James II in the Glorious Revolution and are coronated as joint monarchs on April 11, 1689. They rule together until Mary's death in 1694 (aged 32), and then William III rules alone until his death at the age of 51.
  • Katherine Thomas compiles "Commonplace Book"- Kelsey Thomas

    Katherine Thomas compiles "Commonplace Book"-            Kelsey Thomas
    Katherine Thomas compiled a commonplace book around 1691, including over 100 prayers, advice for her children, and elegies for her husband and daughters, Katherine and Dorothy upon each of their deaths. Her eldest three children died early, the 17th Century having high infancy death. Her husband died shortly after his father and Katherine was named administrator of wealth and property, a significant event in the history of independent women including property ownership, and death rights.
  • Mary Sibley Suggests a Witch Cake

    Mary Sibley Suggests a Witch Cake
    Mary Sibley was a member of the Salem community and her niece, Mary Wolcott, was one of the accusers during the trials. When the first girls started to behave strangely, she suggested Tituba and John Indian make a witch cake to discover whether witch craft was involved. Rev. Parris admonished her for suggesting further magic. After the creation of this witch cake, that found that witches were involved, the afflicted girls also started pointing their fingers toward witch craft. [Maggie]
  • Turkish/Ottoman Empire Fashion

    Turkish/Ottoman Empire Fashion
    While the Palace and its court displayed showy clothes, the common people were only concerned with covering themselves. The administrators occasionally brought about legal regulations on clothes. These applications were first initiated during the period of Süleyman the Magnificent. In the 16th century women wore two-layer long 'entari' and 'tül', velvet shawl on their heads. The simplification in the 17th century was apparent in an inner 'entari' worn under short-sleeved, caftan-shaped outfit JV
  • Anne becomes Queen

    Anne becomes Queen
    Anne succeeds her cousin and brother-in-law, William III, on March 8, 1702. She was coronated on April 23, 1702 and reigned until her death at the age of 49.
  • (Lauren) Susanna Centlivre publishes her play, "The Basset Table"

    (Lauren) Susanna Centlivre publishes her play, "The Basset Table"
    In 1705, Susanna Centlivre wrote the play "The Basset Table," which features a female scientist, Valeria. In the play, she enacts standard, nerdy tropes of a female scientist, and her father ridicules her interests, telling her to marry a sea captain and mother strong sons who will fight the French. In the end, while she does fulfill her feminine role in marriage, she chooses her suitor, play an equal part in a happy marriage, and retain her scientific interests.
  • John Locke publishes A New Method of Making Common-Place-Books

    John Locke publishes A New Method of Making Common-Place-Books
    John Locke was a philosopher known as the father of empiricism. The book outlines techniques for entering and arranging materials within the commonplace book. He leaned heavily into the concept of the commonplace book as thematic, and considered the organization systematic. It "...sought 'to increase the amount of information one could annotate in the notebook, while also speeding up its retrieval,' by creating a system of indexing the book’s quotations". [Janie]
  • Lady Mary Moves to Italy

    Lady Mary Moves to Italy
    in 1736 Lady Mary begins making plans to move from London to Italy with the Italian writer Francesco Algarotti. When questioned by her friends and family (including her husband) about this traveling choice, Lady Mary states it is for health reasons. Unfortunately Algarotti is called to Berlin, causing Mary end up in Avignon, France. Mary resides there until 1746. Eventually, Mary settles in Brescia, Italy with Count Ugo Palazzi (who is infamously noted to be half Lady Mary's age). (Ben)
  • A Dictionary of the English Language

    A Dictionary of the English Language
    Samual Johnsons was commissioned to write a dictionary. Often referred to as "Johnson's Dictionary," it was the most influential dictionary until the Oxford English Dictionary (1884). Johnson said he could compete the dictionary in 3 years, but it actually took him 7, however; he completed it on his own. Johnson was paid roughly $310k in modern American currency. The dictionary held over 42k words, and Johnsons defined the words through literary examples.
  • Industrial Revolution

    Industrial Revolution
    The Industrial Revolution created new jobs that influenced the rise in population in urban areas. In fact, by 1940 40% of Americans lived in urban cities and were attributing to the growing necessity of food. This sparked new methods of food distribution, such as mass production and preservatives. I chose this event to add after participating in the in-class activity last class. We debated if women would create food in mass, such as almond extract to keep for future recipes. {cj}
  • Chateau of the Marquis de Chamon by the Fontaine (Baroness Elizabeth Craven)

    Chateau of the Marquis de Chamon by the Fontaine (Baroness Elizabeth Craven)
    The castle's origins are in the 11th century, but it was largely modified in subsequent centuries.
    The Marquis de Sade stayed there from 1769 to 1772, between the scandals at Arcueil and Marseille, then after the latter and his flight to Italy, he took refuge there until his incarceration in the Château de Vincennes in 1777. During the French Revolution, the castle was vandalised and largely destroyed. The construction materials were sold.
  • Fontaine De Vaucluse

    Fontaine De Vaucluse
    Baroness Elizabeth Craven references this geographical location in one of her letters. This location is significant because it has some interesting history; during the Middle Ages, there was a hermit who lived on the road and was performing miracles so he was made a bishop. Petrarch also lived in the area until his sons death, and then general area was avoided after that. In the 20th century, Jacques Cousteau almost died in the spring because his scuba gear malfunctioned.
  • Smallpox Vaccination Studies Begin

    Smallpox Vaccination Studies Begin
    Edward Jenner begins his testing to develop a vaccination to prevent the smallpox disease in 1796. Jenner began his career in medicine at the St. George' Hospital where he apprenticed as a surgeon. His motto in medicine was "Don't think; try." His studies began after he noticed workers who had previously been exposed to cattle who had cowpox being immune to the smallpox disease. Jenner officially published his findings in 1801 in a study titled "On the Origin of the Vaccine Inoculation". (Ben)
  • Mary Shelley Publishes Frankenstein

    Mary Shelley Publishes Frankenstein
    A contender for the "start of the science fiction genre" Mary Shelley published Frankenstein in 1818 at the age of 20.
  • Publishing of Memoirs by Lady Anne Fanshawe

    Publishing of Memoirs by Lady Anne Fanshawe
    This text is referred to in one source as an autobiography. In another it is said that most of what we know about LAF is found in her Memoirs, which seems to suggest that the text is about her, but it is primarily a family record, and also attempts to vindicate financial claims against the government. Via another source Memoirs is said to be a post-mortem account of her husband's life. The text was not published until well after Fanshawe's death (1829) though it was completed in 1626. [Janie]
  • Creation of the sazerac

    Creation of the sazerac
    The sazerac is labeled as the oldest cocktail in Am. history. It was invented by Antoine Peychaud in New Orleans. The original drink was made with brandy but later was switched to rye, which has been the norm since 1873. The sazerac became a huge sensation until one of it's key ingredients, absinthe, become banned in 1912. Because of the ban, Peychaud substituted bitters. It is now labeled the official cocktail of NO and is most notably served in the Sazerac Bar in the Roosevelt. {Cj}
  • Elizabeth Garrett Anderson Qualifies for Medical License

    Elizabeth Garrett Anderson Qualifies for Medical License
    Elizabeth Garrett Anderson was the first woman in England to qualify for a medical license. After she met the first female doctor in the U.S., Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell, she decided to become a doctor as well. She was barred from British medical schools and had to teach herself French so that she could get a degree in Paris. She opened her own hospital so that she could practice in England, and helped campaign for an act that allowed women to become doctors. [Maggie]
  • Ann Blair Publishes "The Rise of Notetaking in Early Modern Europe"

    Ann Blair Publishes "The Rise of Notetaking in Early Modern Europe"
    I failed to find any research papers or journal articles that included women in surveys of Early Modern commonplace books The extension to note taking expands how we imagine commonplacing, This article, written by a woman(Ann Blair, a Harvard History Professor), includes no she/her pronouns, and cites just one other woman, whose research was also male-centric. [Janie]
  • Jane Seymour's Letter to King Henry VIII is Found

    Jane Seymour's Letter to King Henry VIII is Found
    Jane Seymour was Henry VIII's third wife, and the only to birth a male heir. Her letter informing the King of the birth of their son was discovered preserved in an estate in 2012. Jane Seymour is the only of Henry's wives to be buried beside him, probably due to his obsession with having a son. The Tudor King is famous for divorcing or beheading the wives that didn't produce male heirs. His sentiments are an extreme version of the pressure women were under to produce sons. [Maggie]