APUSH Timeline Periods 1-9

Timeline created by pvdittamo
In History
  • Apr 22, 1492

    Christopher Columbus gains backing of Isabella and Ferdinand

    Christopher Columbus gains backing of Isabella and Ferdinand
    Columbus gains financing for his voyage from Europe to the Indies from the King and Queen of Spain. This started the colonization of the New World.
  • Jun 7, 1494

    Treaty of Tordesillas

    Treaty of Tordesillas
    Spain and Portugal agree to move a previous line of demarcation,dividing territories in the New World, a little west. This gave Portugal control over Brazil and allowed Spain to colonize the rest of the Americas.
  • Nov 22, 1542

    New Laws of 1542

    New Laws of 1542
    Bartolome de Las Casas persuaded king of Spain to end the use of Indian slavery and began to end the encomienda system. This led to a need for a new source of labor (African slaves).
  • Apr 22, 1550

    Valladolid Debate

    Valladolid Debate
    Debate over the treatment of Native Americans in Spanish colonies. Casas: Indians were equals therefore should not be enslaved. Sepulveda: Indians were savages therefore did not deserve rights. Casas set a tone of establishing basic rights for Native Americans.
  • Apr 22, 1570

    English Competition with Spain

    English Competition with Spain
    After Englad's serperation from the Catholic Church, Queen Elizabeth 1 began to compete with Spain's dominance in oceanic shipping across the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. This led to a growing competition between European nations over the wealth the the New World provided.
  • Spanish Policy

    Spanish Policy
    European diseases such as small pox killed off many of the natives who the Spanish forced into labor. Siince only men made the voyage to the New World, the Spaniards married native women increasing diversity. A rigid class system, the encomienda system, divided people by their race. This set a trend of subjugating groups of people based on race.
  • English Policy

    English Policy
    Many English colonists came with their families and originally had a mutually positive relationship with the natives. The English then viewed the natives as savages and kicked them of their land. This set the trend in northern America to treat natives poorly.
  • French Policy

    French Policy
    The French had a good relationship due to a profitable fur trade. French soldiers helped their native allies, the Hurons, fend off the Iroquois nation. This set a relationship that continued up to the Seven Years' War against the English colonists and England.
  • Jamestown

    Jamestown
    A joint stock company, the Virginia Company, funded the the creation of the first English colony, Jamestown. John Rolfe grows a new strain of tobacco that was in high demand in Europe. Tobacco fields will later need to be farmed by labor (African slaves) and provide exrra incentive to increase colonization of a now profittable east coast.
  • House of Burgeses

    House of Burgeses
    The first representative assembly is created by the Virginia colonists. This started a want by colonists to be self goverened. British salutory neglect allowed for the power of colonial government to increase.
  • Mayflower Compact

    Mayflower Compact
    Form of colonists self governing and a start to a constituition signed on the Mayflower. This decided rulings by majority and gae all male Puritans a right to vote and participate in government.
  • Act of Toleration

    Act of Toleration
    Calvert pushed for the passing of an act granting religious freedom to all Christians in the colonies. This set a precedent of a Christian-based society and culture during the deveopement of a new nation (America).
  • Acts of Trade and Navigation

    Acts of Trade and Navigation
    Mercantalism: England controlled all trade in and out of the colonies, limiting the economic growth of the colonies by not providing other trading partners. This created a resentment of British Rule.
  • King Phillip's War

    King Phillip's War
    New Englanders increase settlement on native land leading to war between colonists and Indians. Colonists won , ending native resistance to white encroachemnt in the New England colonies. Set a tone of subjugating American Indians.
  • Bacon's Rebellion

    Bacon's Rebellion
    Indentured servants rebel against Berkeley's government, burning down Jamestown. This demonstrated growing differences between the wealthy and the poor and showed an increasing resistance against colonial rule.
  • Colonial Politics

    Colonial Politics
    The colonies had a governmnet structure consisting of a governor as the chief executive and a law making legislature. Governors were appointed by the King of England in royal colonies. A bicameral legislature was elected by eligible colonists. This gave colonists representation over their favorred policies. This set a lay out for future government in America.
  • The Seven Years' War

    The Seven Years' War
    Colonial and British military forces defeat France and native forces in the New World over gaining dominance over resources of the West Indies and Canada. Britain gained Canada and Florida, while Spain gained lands west of the Mississppi. The war gave Britain the impression that the colonial military was weak and could easily be defeated. The outcome of the war gave colonists confidence in their military. Englsih salutory negelct ended after the war.
  • Proclamation of 1763

    Proclamation of 1763
    In response to Pontiac's Rebellion, the British government forbade colonist from expanding west of the Appalachian Mountains to prevent anymore conflicts between colonists and natives. This created anti-Britsh government resentment in the colonies because colonists felt as thouth they fought a war for the land.
  • Sugar Act

    Sugar Act
    Aka Revenue Act of 1764, taxed foreign sugar and luxury goods. Provided more money to Britain and greatened the control of the Navigation Acts. Caused for an increase in colonial angst against the British governemnt.
  • Quartering Act

    Quartering Act
    Required colonists to provide housing and food for British soldiers in the colonies. Increased anti-British government in the colonies.
  • Townshend Act

    Townshend Act
    Parliament passed new laws placing a tax on colonial imports of tea, glass, and paper to raise money for the crown. Also allowed for the search of colonists' homes. This led to the creation of the Massachusetts Circular Letter and then the Sons of Liberty, both resistance groups to the British governments.
  • First Continental Congress

    First Continental Congress
    Response of delegates from all colonies, except Georgia, to react to Britain's increasing role in the colonies. Determined wanted to restore rights but not seperate. This led to a unified group of colonies and the start of the Revolutionary War.
  • Coercive Acts

    Coercive Acts
    Punish the people of Boston by shutting down the Boston Harbor, reduce the power of the colonist's legislature, and expanded the Quartering Act. This led to patriots wanting to sperate from the British homeland
  • The Declaration of Independence

    The Declaration of Independence
    Decaltratio of freedom for the colonies. All men are created equal and hae the right to pursue Life,Liberty and Happiness. This officially caused for the colonies to seperate from Britain. Still an important document today, used to make laws and determine policy.
  • The Articles of Confederation

    The Articles of Confederation
    First written constitution for the USA. Created a weak Central government, a unicameral legislature, states given one vote, 9/13 to pass laws. Issues arose: government struggled collecting taxes, little united action to fend off potential enemies, This created a need for a new constitution.
  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
    Ended the Revolutionary War. 1) Britain recognizes the USA as an independent nation 2) USA western border = Mississippi river 3) America gains fishing rights in Canadian coast 4) America pays off debt. This is important because America officially became an independent nation.
  • Virginia Plan

    Virginia Plan
    James Madison proposes entirely new constitution, 3 branches of government (executive, legislative, judicial), bicameral Congress, federal government has right to make laws for individuals. Important because part used to create the structure of American government.
  • New Jersey Plan

    New Jersey Plan
    William Paterson suggested a revision of the Articles of Confederation, unicameral legislature with all law making power, and power kept with states to rule over individuals. Important because part of foundation of American government.
  • Connecticut Compromise

    Connecticut Compromise
    bicameral legislature: senate and house of reps (based on state population) This was important because this is the structure today of America's law making body. It also allowed deliberations to continue at the Constituional Convention leading to the 3/5 compromise.
  • George Washington's Presidency

    George Washington's Presidency
    First president of the USA. Established how a presdient should act, as a aleader. Organized the federal government, established the executive department (cabinet), and a federal court system. Warned against the formation of political parties, foreign alliances, and falling into sectionalism.
  • Adding of the BIll of Rights

    Adding of the BIll of Rights
    The First 10 amendments, in the constitution, guaranteeing basic personal freedoms and protection from the abuse of government. Ex; freedom of speech, right to bear arms, right to a jury and a speedy trial, etc. The bill of Rights still impacts judicial ruling of the supreme courts today.
  • John Marshall Supreme Court

    John Marshall Supreme Court
    Chief Justince of Supreme Court for 34 years during early 1800s. Ruled in favor of central government, limiting states' rights. Marbury v Madison: gave the Supreme court power to overrule the Legislative and Executive branches. This has given the supreme court to declare certain government acts as unconstitutional.
  • Constitutional Predicament of Louisiana Purchase

    Constitutional Predicament of Louisiana Purchase
    No clause in Constituion stated that a president could purchase land, Hamilton argues that Jefferson did not have a constitutional power to perform the Louissiana Purchase. Jefferson said it was for the greater good of America and congress passed the purchase. This allowed for America to greatly expand its land mass allowing for economic growth.
  • War Hawks

    War Hawks
    Young Democratic-Republicans, such as Clay and Calhoun, elected into congress. They were eager to go to war with England to defend America's honor, stop Indian conflict, and acquire Canada. This led to the War of 1812.
  • Hartford Convention

    Hartford Convention
    Near the end of the War of 1812 radical Federalists wanted to secede from the Union because of the increasing influence of the Democratic-Republican party. Seen as tratorous and caused for the federalsit party to dissolve. During the convention, Congress was given the power to delcare war, with 2/3 in both houses needed to declare wa. Even today, the President cannot declare war without the 2/3 approval of Congress.
  • Missouri Compromise

    Missouri Compromise
    To keep balance between number of free and slave states, Missourri was admitted as a slave state and Maine admitted as a free state. Prohibited slavery north of the lattitude 36 30 in the remaining territory of the Louissiana Purchase, created grounds for mamy future arguments and conflicts.
  • Monroe Doctrine

    Monroe Doctrine
    Monroe Doctrine stated that the US woud not intervene in European conflicts if European nations stayed away from the western Hemisphere. This allowed for the US to have control over Latin America and shaped later presidents' foreign policy.
  • Changes in the Democratic-Republican Party

    Changes in the Democratic-Republican Party
    After the Federalist Party diminished, the Democratic-Republican Party remained as the only political party. The majority of Democratic-Republicans switched views to Federalistic ideals like the support of a national bank. This led to the split of the Democratic Republican Party, continuing America's two party system which still exists today.
  • Seperation of Church and State

    Seperation of Church and State
    by 1830a all states established a principle of seperation of church and state. The government would no longer give financial support to any religious group. This sea a precedent of seperating rulings and religion.
  • Indian Removal Act

    Indian Removal Act
    Andrew Jackson forced Indian tribes to resettle west of the Mississippi to give land to white citizens. The US army followed tribes down the Trail of Tears, many indians died during the travel. This continued the mistreatment of natives by white people.
  • Rise of Political Influence of Common Man

    Rise of Political Influence of Common Man
    1824-1840, Universal white male suffrage, the popular election of the president, political campaigning in a two-party system, led to middle class white men having more influence in government as opposed to politcal power being limited to only rich white men. This is important because the majority, the middle class, were beginning to have a say in decisions of the country.
  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hildago

    Treaty of Guadalupe Hildago
    Rio Grande became the southern border of Texas nad the US gained the Mexican Cession for 15 million. Many claim this as a prelude to the Civil War because it revived debates over the extension of slavery into newly acquired western lands.
  • Compromise of 1850

    Compromise of 1850
    California admitted as a free state, divied Mexican Cession into Utah and New Mexico where popular sovereignty would decide status of slavery, ban slave trade in Washington DC, and enforce a Fugitive Slave Law. This led to opposition of the fugitive slave law by northern abolitionists eventually leading to growing resentment in the south by creating a belief that the governemnt favorred the north.
  • Kansas-Nebraska Act

    Kansas-Nebraska Act
    Purpose was to create a midwestern transcontinental railroad. Both Kansas and Nebraska, which were above the 36 30 line, would be formed and popular sovereignty would decide slave status in both the states. This led to the flood of pro-slavery southerners and anti-slavery northerners into Kansas causing conflict. Guerilla warfare broke out in what came to be known as Bleeding Kansas as northerners and southerners fought. This preludes the violence from the future Civil War between.
  • Dred Scott v. Sandford Decision

    Dred Scott v. Sandford Decision
    Ruled that African Americans were not American citizens, instead were property and that Congress could not take away a slave owner's slaves. Also ruled that the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional for forbidding slavery in the north. This angerred the North while pleased the South. This set blacks to a sub human status which would later be fought over to change.
  • 13th Amendment

    13th Amendment
    Abolished slavery and involuntary service in the United States of America. First of three Reconstruction Amendments following the Civil War. Significicant because freed all black slaves.
  • 14th Amendment

    14th Amendment
    Declared that all American-born people were citizens and gave equal protection of the law and due process of the law to all citizens. Also sought to rid of Confederate traces in the south. Although newly freed blacks did not recieve equal protection of the law until a century later, the 14th Amendment set the foundation for an equal society.
  • 15th Amendment

    15th Amendment
    Prohibitted denying an American citizen's right to vote based on race,color,of previous servitude. This allowed blacks to vote during the beginning of Reconstruction. Whites in the south eventually prevented blacks from voting through grandfather clauses, poll taxes, and literacy tests. All blacks were able to vote following the Civil Rights movement of the 1960s with the foundation being set with the 15th Amendment.
  • Greenback Party

    Greenback Party
    Backed by farmers, apporved of paper money not back by silver or gold. Had 14 members elected to congress in short run. Helped bring about the increase of money in circulation.
  • Federal Land Grants

    Federal Land Grants
    1876-1900. The Homestead Act sold government owned western lands to railroad companies at discount prices to expand railroads to the west eventually leading to settlement. This lead to the Transcontinental railroad and corruption. The significance of the expansion of railroads out west was the increase in western settle leading to economic growth for America.
  • Civil Service Reform

    Civil Service Reform
    Pendleton Act established that federal government jobs be based on merit instead of political affiliation. Set up Civil Serive commission and a competitive exam to determine the hiringfor classified federal jobs. This began a trend of public outcry against government corruption leading to government cleaning up a little bit.
  • Dawes Severalty Act

    Dawes Severalty Act
    Broke up Indian tribal organizations to assimilate natives to white society. Tribal land was divided into large land plots and given to, along with US citizenship, to natives who adopted American culture and civility. Led to white men taking advantage of the system and purchased the cheap land. This continued the mistreatment/subjugation of native Americans by the US government and white men
  • Omaha Platform

    Omaha Platform
    Rise of the People's Party (Populists): wanted direct election of senators and laws, free silver, graduated income tax (instead of land owmership),government owned railroads and telegraphs and telephones. Former members of Farmers' Alliance. Formed a politcal alliance with poor whites and blacks, attacked pure capitalism.
  • US v EC Knight Co.

    US v EC Knight Co.
    Ruled that Congress could not regulate manufacturing. The Sherman Antutrust act could only apply to commerce. This allowed for companies to foster very poor working conditions and produce faulty products that would later be addressed during the Progressive Era.
  • Plessy v Ferguson

    Plessy v Ferguson
    Supreme court ruled that seperate but equal facilities are constitutional under the Equal Protection Clause. This allowed for whites in the south to seperate blacks from society and enforce Jim Crow laws. Black children were not allowed to attend the same schools as whites, recieving a lesser education with less funding.
  • Election of 1896

    Election of 1896
    Republican Mckinley defeats Populist William Jennings Bryan. Set a run of pro-business Republicn Presidents and Congress and led to the end of the Populist Party. Ended Gilded Age's inactivity of goevernment due to stalemates between opposing politcal parties.
  • Politcal Reform

    Politcal Reform
    1910- states have secret ballot for voting
    1915-states use direct primaries to rid of boss rule and politcal machines
    1913 (17th Amendment)- Direct election of Senators
    initiative, referendum, recall
    The Progressive era brought increased power in politics for the people.
  • Election of 1912

    Election of 1912
    Wilson defeated a split Republican Party. Woodrow Wilson established a Progressive Program which reduced tariffs, reformed banks, regulated banks and child labor. Wilson's presidenct brought about increases in Civil rights organizations.
  • Irreconcilables and Reservationists

    Irreconcilables and Reservationists
    Both opposed the ratification of the Treaty of Versailles. Irreconcilables did not want the US to join any foreign alliance (the League of Nations). Reservationists wanted changes made to the peace agreement. Wilsom did not want to make reservations leading to the US not ratifying the Treaty thus not joining the League of Nations. This continued US's policy of staying away from foreign alliances and maintained global power by itself.
  • Schneck v US Supreme Court Ruling

    Schneck v US Supreme Court Ruling
    Right to free speech can be limited during a time of clear and preset danger such as time of war. This has allowed government to limit rights guarunteed by bill of rights in constituion during times of war.
  • Presidency of Warren Harding

    Presidency of Warren Harding
    Republican Warren Harding's presidency only lasted two years after he died in office in 1923. His term was marked by political scandals by his cabinet and himself. Some members of his cabinet were convicted of taking bribes from oil companies to create policies in their favor. Importance: Coollidge took over after Harding and created a time of business boom.
  • Conservative Limitation of FDR New Deal

    Conservative Limitation of FDR New Deal
    Conservatives claimed the New Deal was communist or socialist. The New Deal threatened big business by increasing regulation, so conservatives attempted to stop FDR's programs by forming the American Liberty League. Shows divide between liberal business doctrine and conservative hands off business doctrine.
  • Supreme Court and FDR

    Supreme Court and FDR
    1935- Supreme court stops NRA and AAA declaring them unconstituional.
    1937- FDR judicial reorganization bill: allow FDR to add six supreme court jusitces.
    Politicians on both sides viewed this as an abuse of power, so his bill was shot down by Congress. This shows the effectiveness of the checks and balances system in America to assure no branch becomes too powerful.
  • McCarthyism

    McCarthyism
    Republican senator who rose to power by accusing many high profile Americans of being communist during Second Red Scare. Accused democrat Politicians and liberal Hollywood actors. Fortunately, after his accustion of soldiers being communist on national TV, he lost his politcal power. This shows how policians take advantage of the fears of American citizens inorder to rise to politcal power.
  • Truman Presidency

    Truman Presidency
    A Conservative Congress did not allow Truman to pass an Employment Act, decrease inflation and strikes (the blocking led to record inflation) and civil rights acts. His presidenct was originally considerred a failure as he was not able to live up to FDR. Historians look back at his presidency in a more positive manner because he was not able to pass laws bc of opposement from congress. This shows the wrongs in politcal parties voting just in their party's interests leading to no improvements.
  • Warren Court

    Warren Court
    Conservative chief justice rules that seperate but equal facilities in the south were inherently unequal in his ruling of Brown v Board of Education. He demands the immediate integration of public schools in the south. Also increased criminal rights with his rulings in Mapp v Ohia, Gideon v Wainwright, Escobedo v Illinois, and Miranda v Arizona. Although he was a conservative, many of his rulings leaned more left than right. Warren's court shaped American law today and helped end segregation.
  • Sputnik Shock

    Sputnik Shock
    Russia's launching of satellites into Earth's orbit scare the United States into investing into the nation's STEM programs with the passing of the National Defense and Education Act and the creation of NASA. This exhibits US's policies during the Cold War were typically in response or anticipation to the communist Soviet Union.
  • Kennedy Assasination

    Kennedy Assasination
    President Kennedy was shot in the head while in Dallas, leading to LBJ swearing in as president. LBJ was easily reelected in 1964 because he was continuing JFK's New Frontier Program, continuing legacy of popular president who was assasinated. His election in 1964 led to his implementaion of a Great Society which ended segregation in the south and federalized health care for the old and poor.
  • Nixon: White Backlash

    Nixon: White Backlash
    For almost a century the south had been predominantly democrat. Lyndon B Johnson(democrat)'s Great Society ended the segregation of blacks in the south angered the southern democrats. Nixon took advantage of this white backlash and caused the shift of white southerners to the republican party. This shows how race played a role in politcal parties and how politicans abused racial issues to gain votes.
  • Watergate

    Watergate
    During election of 1972, Nixon's people broke into his opponent's hotel room to steal documents. After an attempt to cover it up, Nixon resigned and members of his cabinet were arrested. This occurence lead to a distrust of politicians by the American people leading to the election of a "non-politician", Jimmy Carter
  • Jimmy Carter National Malaise

    Jimmy Carter National Malaise
    Crisis of Confidence Speech: Carter blamed the moral and spirit of the American people for the economic problems in America. Told Americans to wear a sweater at home instead of complaining of being cold. Combined with Iranian hostage situation, Carter's approval rating dropped. This led to the election of Ronald Reagan starting the conservative resurgence.
  • Reagan Becomes President

    Reagan Becomes President
    Rise of Conservatism caused by a loss of morals, stagnant economy, declining standard of living, and fragmentation of society. 1980 ended Democrat control of Congress. Reaganomics: federal tax reduction (trickle down from rich),government spending cuts(increase in military spending),deregulation of business,conservatice supreme court jusitces. Reagan's election led to a revival of religious values, military build up, and a smaller government, growth of conservatism and massive debt.
  • Bush ends Cold War

    Bush ends Cold War
    George H. W. Bush and Gorbachev sign START 1 and 2 greatly reducing nuclear weapons, ending the Cold War. Bush was very strong in foreign policy, being a seasoned diplomat. With the Cold War over, the US experienced an economic boom because all the focus spent on the Cold War shifted to domestic America such as the economy.
  • Clinton Presidency

    Clinton Presidency
    1993-2001. Bill Clinton, a democrat, works with a Repiblican congress to reform welfare and balance the budget. FIrst President in a long time to operate in the positive (decrease defecit)and helped jump start an economy with 10 million new jobs. He was also impeached in 1998, over lying over a relationship he had with Monica Lewinsky. Congress did not vote to remove Clinton but his reputaion was damaged. Clinton's Presidency helped shape our economy and also set the stage for his wife, Hilary.
  • Election of 2000

    Election of 2000
    Closest election in over a century. Electoral votes come down to swing-state, Florida. Bush wins Florida by little over 500 votes in partial recount, Democratic party ask for a manual recount denied by Supreme Court in 5-4 decision because of Equal-Protection Clause. This led to Bush controlling the White House for 8 years. Based on your politcal opinons, Gore may or may not have done better than Bush, with limited regulation of business allowing for Wall Street to trade faulty mortgage loans.
  • September 11, 2001

    September 11, 2001
    Al-Qaeda hi-jack planes and crash into Twin Towers and Pentagon in terroristic attack. This causes a shift in American polical policy creating a War on Terror. Republicans and Democrats differ on opinions of declaration of war and the treatment of captive terrorists (torture). Furthers a divide in American politics and society.
  • Election of 2008

    Election of 2008
    Democrat Barack Obama beats Republican Bill Clinton becoming America's first black president. After the crash of the housing bubble and great recession, Obama keeps promise of public health care (Obamacare) but also greatly increases national debt while lowering the unemployment rate. His presidency has undergone the passing of the legalization of gay marriage and increased gun laws in response to mass shootings.
  • Period:
    Apr 21, 1491
    to

    Periods 1-9